Cellular Mechanisms: Oxidation

Update 5/1/20

Scientific Literature

Cellular and Biologic Mechanisms of Wireless Radiofrequency Radiation: Oxidation, Inflammation & Biomarkers

Oxidation is process of loss of electrons from a compound or atom. The classic example of oxidation we all know is rust, whereby oxygen steals electrons from iron. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are biologic free radical signaling molecules which are created as a normal part of cellular aerobic metabolism, a response to infection or from exposure to natural or synthetic toxicants. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species overwhelms our own antioxidant defense systems, creating oxidative stress with damage to a variety of biological macromolecules such as DNA, membrane lipids, carbohydrates and proteins.  Oxidative stress triggers inflammation. This causes a general cellular stress response with disruption of biological processes. Research indicates that this damage can be cumulative.  A metabolic signature remains and is measurable.  Physicists are now finding that spin biochemistry explains this mechanism on oxidative metabolism, ROS signaling and cellular growth. Belpomme et al has studied individuals who are electrosensitive and chemically sensitive and found similarities in biochemical analysis and inflammatory markers.

Cellular Oxidative Stress

Scientists have found that oxidative stress plays a major part in the development of chronic, degenerative and inflammatory illnesses such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, aging, cataracts, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as some acute pathologies (trauma, stroke).

Human Internal Antioxidants

The human body has several mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress by producing our own internal antioxidants with enzymatic (superoxide dismutase) but also non-enzymatic molecules such as alpha lipoic acid, Coenzyme Q, glutathione and. Plants also contain endogenous antioxidant defenses, such as antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase as well as non-enzymatic defenses including ascorbic acid, glutathione, flavonoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols, all of which scavenge and neutralize ROS. These plant antioxidants protect mammals who consume them. The delicate balance of this complex oxidant and antioxidant system is critical in the normal functioning and homeostasis of an organism.

Pollution Causes Cellular Oxidative Stress

External environmental factors found to stimulate cellular production of these unstable reactive molecules (both reactive oxygen species as well as reactive nitrogen species) include pollution, cigarette smoke, heavy or transition metals (Cd, Hg, Pb, Fe, As), ionizing radiation and some pharmaceutical medications. Research shows that microwave radio frequencies from wireless devices also cause reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species to be overproduced in cells both in animals and plants.

Mechanism of Harm from Wireless Non-ionizing Radiation is Oxidative Stress

Yakymenko in 2016 looked at 100 currently available peer-reviewed studies on oxidative effects of low-intensity microwave radio frequencies. He found that  93 of the 100 studies confirmed that these wireless radio frequencies induced oxidative effects in biological systems.

Studies have also highlighted the protective effects of vitamin C, E and other antioxidants with exposure to radio frequencies. This is a complex system but the ultimate biologic result which can occur with acute exposure to higher levels or chronic exposure to lower levels of non-ionizing radiofrequencies is cumulative tissue damage. Genetic, age and health vulnerabilities influence the repair abilities of cells and thus enhance biologic harm.

Synergistic Toxic Exposures Increase Oxidative Stress

The concern for exposure to radio frequency radiation is magnified by the fact that we are exposed to numerous pollutants in our environment on a regular basis and these toxicants can act synergistically via reactive oxygen species and other mechanisms to promote a variety of diseases.

Newest Articles

  • The effect of vitamin E and C on comet assay indices and apoptosis in power plant workers: A double blind randomized controlled clinical trial. (2020)  Hosseinabadi M et al. Mutat Res. 2020 Feb – Mar;850-851:503150. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32247559/
  • The Effects of Antioxidant Vitamins on Proinflammatory Cytokines and Some Biochemical Parameters of Power Plant Workers: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. (2020)  Hosseinabadi MB. Bioelectromagnetics. 2020 Sep 15. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32931612/
  • Oxidative stress associated with long term occupational exposure to extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields. (2020) Hosseinabadi MB. Work.  2020 Sep 6. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32925155/
  • Reactive Oxygen Species: Potential Regulatory Molecules in Response to Hypomagnetic Field Exposure. (2020)Zhang B et al. Bioelectromagnetics. 2020 Sep 30. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32997824/
  • Effects of a Single Head Exposure to GSM-1800 MHz Signals on the Transcriptome Profile in the Rat Cerebral Cortex: Enhanced Gene Responses Under Proinflammatory Conditions. (2020) Lameth J et al. Neurotox Res. 2020 Mar 21.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32200527
  • Effect of electromagnetic radiation on redox status, acetylcholine esterase activity and cellular damage contributing to the diminution of the brain working memory in rats.(2020) Sharma S et al. J Chem Neuroanat. 2020 Mar 20:101784. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32205214/
  • Assessment of electromagnetic fields, vibration and sound exposure effects from multiple transceiver mobile phones on oxidative stress levels in serum, brain and heart tissue. (2020) Usman JD et al. Scientific African. Vol 7. March 2020. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2468227620300090
  • Impact of Cerebral Radiofrequency Exposures on Oxidative Stress and Corticosterone in a Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease. Bouji M et al. J Alzheimer’s Disease. 2020;73(2):467-476. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31796670/
  • Effect of 900-, 1800-, and 2100-MHz radiofrequency radiation on DNA and oxidative stress in brain. (2019) Alkis ME et al. Electromagn Biol Med. 2019;38(1):32-47. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30669883
  • Aluminium foil dampened the adverse effect of 2100 MHz mobile phone-induced radiation on the blood parameters and myocardium in rats. (2019) Kalanjati VP.  Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.  2019. Apr;26(12):11686-11689. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30806932
  • Oxidative stress response in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to short-term 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation.  (2018) Cermak M et al. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2018;53:132-138. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29148897
  • Role of Mitochondria in the Oxidative Stress Induced by Electromagnetic Fields: Focus on Reproductive Systems. (2018) Santini SJ et al. . Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018 Nov 8;2018. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30533171

Review Articles RF EMR Oxidation


  • Reliable disease biomarkers characterizing and identifying electrohypersensitivity and multiple chemical sensitivity as two etiopathogenic aspects of a unique pathological disorder. (2015) Belpomme D.  Rev Environ Health. 2015;30(4):251-71. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26613326

Published Literature


Published Literature on Antioxidants, Oxidation and Protection from RF Radiation



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