Immune and Endocrine System

Scientific Literature

The Neuro-Endocrine Immune  System 

The immune and the endocrine systems are critical organ systems that are also intricately linked to the nervous system and can profoundly impact reproduction, fetal development and function as well as cancer promotion/ prevention, infection defense, wound healing, neurologic function, metabolic homeostasis and aging. The immune system can also target the body’s own healthy tissues, which manifest as a variety of autoimmune diseases such as Type 1 diabetes, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. Immune endocrinology is a research field that studies these connections and interplay with all other organ systems of the body. Hormones and neurotransmitters produced by different cells modulate a broad  variety of cellular and metabolic processes as well as each other. Interference with one of these systems can cause stimulation or suppression of the other leading to protection or injury.

Gender-Based Differences in the Immune and Nervous System

It is also of interest that there  is substantial evidence of gender-based differences in the immune response which lead to differences in  host immunity,  inflammatory gene expression and disease patterns.  Sex hormones are known to regulate immune function. Estrogen receptors are on cells throughout the body, not only in the reproductive organs.  In the brain, estrogen has been found to be neuro-protective and may reduce neurodegenerative diseases (Brann 2007) . It is a complex system to say the least.

Can Radio Frequency Radiation Alter the Neuroendocrine and Immune System? 

Researchers are learning about the complex effects of non-ionizing radiation on the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Some research has shown adverse effects on the thyroid function, immune system functioning and DNA repair within immune systems. Glucose metabolism in the brain can be affected acutely.  Cell membrane effects with alteration of calcium channels and creation of reactive oxygen species may be one reasonable mechanism as this appears to be a common toxic molecular response in many other studies which can have many physiologic effects.

Unfortunately, research is not always consistent in methods or outcomes, making definitive conclusions difficult.  We are now exposed to constant Wi Fi or cell tower signals at home, work and school thus studies looking at shorter exposure periods may not accurately assess the true biological risk. Recently, Frangopoulou (2018) demonstrated preliminary research on the hippocampus, involved in memory and behavior, revealing that 2 hours of exposure to typical cell phone radiation (at 5-17 V/M or about 10-100 µW/cm2) caused alteration of expression in 178 genes, “revealing an impact on genes involved in critical biological processes, such as cell cycle, DNA replication and repair, cell death, cell signaling, nervous system development and function, immune system response, lipid metabolism, and carcinogenesis.” More research is needed but precaution is warranted.

See also 


Newest Research

  • Hippocampal lipidome and transcriptome profile alterations triggered by acute exposure of mice to GSM 1800 MHz mobile phone radiation: An exploratory study. (2018) Frangopoulou AF et al. Brain Behav. 2018 Jun;8(6):e01001.
  • Exposure to 1.8 GHz electromagnetic fields affects morphology, DNA-related Raman spectra and mitochondrial functions in human lymphs-monocytes. (2018)  Lasalvia M et al. PLoS One. 2018 Feb 20;13(2):e0192894.


Endocrine  System

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