Scientific Literature

Sperm, Ovarian, Embryo Dysfunction

Accurate reproduction of our genetic material from one generation to the next assures survival of the species. This is the most crucial process living organisms have to create healthy, behaviorally appropriate offspring. The nervous system, immune system and reproductive system evolved over time to create a complex interaction of molecular and electrical signaling that provides normal function and integration in an adult. We  have understood for many decades the fragile nature of fetal and childhood development. It is well known that there are critical stages in human and animal development that make this early period vulnerable to harm. There are many junctions during development that can be adversely and permanently altered by toxic exposures. We are aware that these include ionizing radiation, some industrial and commercial chemicals and pesticides. We caution our patients to avoid these. Emerging research is revealing that non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation from wireless devices can also cause adverse biologic effects during reproduction, as is shown in the following scientific literature. This research is strengthening and being reproduced in different laboratories internationally.

See also:


Embryo Effects


  • Exposure to Magnetic Field Non-Ionizing Radiation and the Risk of Miscarriage: A Prospective Cohort Study. (2017) Li et al. Sci Rep. 2017 Dec 13;7(1):17541.

Ovarian Effects

  • Effects of Simulated Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Radiation on Fertilization and Embryo Development.  (2017) Chen H. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 2017 Apr;36(2):123-129.
  • Effects of GSM-like radiofrequency irradiation during the oogenesis and spermiogenesis of Xenopus laevis. (2016) Boga A et al.  Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2016 Mar 24;129:137-144.
  • Disruption of the ovarian follicle reservoir of prepubertal rats following prenatal exposure to a continuous 900-MHz electromagnetic field. (2016) Türedi S . Int J Radiat Biol. 2016 Jun;92(6):329-37.


Sperm Effects Review Articles

Sperm Effects Published Articles

  • Quantitative changes in testicular structure and function in rat exposed to mobile phone radiation.  (2017) Çetkin M.  Andrologia. 2017 Jan 26.
  • Mobile phones electromagnetic radiation and NAD+-dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase as a mitochondrial marker in Asthenozoospermia.  (2016) Abeer M et al.  Biochimie Open. July 25, 2016.
  • Does prolonged radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi devices induce DNA damage in various tissues of rats?  (2016) Akdag MZ. J Chem Neuroanat. 2016 Jan 8.
  • Male fertility and its association with occupational and mobile phone towers hazards: An analytic study. (2016) Al-Quzwini.  Middle East Fertility Society Journal. 2016 Apr 8.
  • Effects of GSM-like radiofrequency irradiation during the oogenesis and spermiogenesis of Xenopus laevis. (2016) Boga A et al.  Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2016 Mar 24;129:137-144.
  • The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on sperm function. (2016)  Houston B et al. Reproduction. 2016 Sep 6.
  • Self-reported mobile phone use and semen parameters among men from a fertility clinic. (2016)  Lewis RC, Mínguez-Alarcón L. Reprod Toxicol. 2016 Nov 9. pii: S0890-6238(16)30408-7.
  • Effects of 1950 MHz W-CDMA-like signal on human spermatoza. (2016) Nakatani-Enomoto S et al. . Bioelectromagnetics. 11 Jun 2016.
  • Radiofrequency radiation (900 MHz)-induced DNA damage and cell cycle arrest in testicular germ cells in swiss albino mice. (2016)  Pandey N, Giri S, Das S, Upadhaya P.  Toxicol Ind Health. 2016 Oct 13.
  • Sperm DNA damage—the effect of stress and everyday life factors. (2016)  International Journal of Impotence Research. Radwan, M et al. 14 April 2016.
  • Proteomic impacts of electromagnetic fields on the male reproductive system. (2016)  Sepehrimanesh, M.,  Davis, D.L.  Comp Clin Pathol (2016). doi:10.1007/s00580-016-2342-x. Epub ahead of print: Oct 13, 2016.
  • Effects of cell phone use on semen parameters: Results from the MARHCS cohort study in Chongqing, China. (2016) Zhang G et al.  Environ Int. 2016 Mar 4;91:116-121. 
  • Impact of Cellphone Radiation on Sexual Behavior and Serum Concentration of Testosterone and LH in Male Mice. (2016)   Zang Z, Ji S, Huang S, Jiang M, Fang Y. Occupational Diseases and Environmental Medicine. 2016. 4(3):56-62.
  • The radioprotective effects of Moringa oleifera against mobile phone electromagnetic radiation-induced infertility in rats. (2015) Bin-Meferij MM, El-Kott AF. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015 Aug 15;8(8):12487-97. eCollection 2015.
  • Effect of long-term exposure of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi equipment on testes functions. (2015) Dasdag S et al.  Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 2015a;2;34(1):37–42.
  • The Effects of Melatonin on Oxidative Stress Parameters and DNA Fragmentation in Testicular Tissue of Rats Exposed to Microwave Radiation. (2015) Djordjevic et al.  Adv Clin Exp Med. 2015 May-Jun;24(3):429-36.
  • Morinda Officinalis How improves cellphone radiation-induced abnormality of LH and LHR in male rats.  (2015) Article in Chinese. Li R et al.  2015 Sep;21(9):824-7.
  • Electromagnetic radiation at 900 MHz induces sperm apoptosis through bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 signaling pathways in rats. (2015)  Liu Q, Si T  Reprod Health. 2015; 12:65.
  • [Protective effect of Liuweidihuang Pills against cellphone electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality, oxidative injury, and cell apoptosis in rat testes]. Ma HR et al. 2015 Aug;21(8):737-41. [Article in Chinese].
  • Exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field for 1 hour a day over 30 days does change the histopathology and biochemistry of the rat testis. (2015) Odacı E.  Int J Radiat Biol. 2015 Jul;91(7):547-54.
  • Effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field on 60-day-old rat testis and epididymal sperm quality. (2015) Odacı E.  Biotech Histochem. 2015 Oct 15:1-11.
  • Exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field for 1 hour a day over 30 days does change the histopathology and biochemistry of the rat testis. (2015) Odacı E. Int J Radiat Biol. 2015 May 20.
  • Effects of Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) Exposure on Apoptosis, Sperm Parameters and Testicular Histomorphometry in Rats: A Time Course Study.(2015)  Saeed Shokri et al  Cell J. 2015 Summer; 17(2): 322–331.
  • Impact of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on the testicular inflammatory pathway biomarkers in young rats: The role of gallic acid. (2015)  Saygin M et al. Environ Toxicol. 2015 Aug 13.
  • Effects of electromagnetic fields exposure on plasma hormonal and inflammatory pathway biomarkers in male workers of a power plant. (2015)  Wang Z et al.  Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2015 Mar 26.
  • What is harmful for male fertility, cell phone or the wireless internet? (2015) Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences. Yildirim et al. Published online Jul 26, 2015.
  • [Impact of mobile phone radiation on the quality and DNA methylation of human sperm in vitro]. (2015) [Article in Chinese]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue et al. 2015 Jun;21(6):515-520.
  • Habits of cell phone usage and sperm quality – does it warrant attention? (2015) Zilberlicht et al. .  Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 31(3):421-426. September 2015.
  • Long-term effects of 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from mobile phone on testicular tissue and epididymal semen quality. (2014) Tas M et al. Electromagn Biol Med. 2014 Sep;33(3):216-22.
  • The protective effect of autophagy on mouse spermatocyte derived cells exposure to 1800MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. (2014)  Liu K. Toxicol Lett. 2014 Aug 4;228(3):216-24.
  • Immunohistopathologic demonstration of deleterious effects on growing rat testes of radiofrequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices. (2013) Atasoy HI et al.  J Pediatr Urol. 2013 Apr;9(2):223-9. 
  • The prophylactic effect of vitamin C on induced oxidative stress in rat testis following exposure to 900 MHz radio frequency wave generated by a BTS antenna model. (2013) Jelodar G et al. Electromagn Biol Med. 2013 Sep;32(3):409-16.
  • Biophysical evaluation of radiofrequency electromagnetic field effects on male reproductive pattern. (2013)  Kesari KK, Kumar S, Nirala J, Siddiqui MH, Behari J. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2013 Mar;65(2):85-96.
  • Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation induces oxidative DNA base damage in a mouse spermatocyte-derived cell line. (2013)  Liu C et al. Toxicol Lett. 2013 Mar 27;218(1):2-9.
  • Mobile phone radiation induces mode-dependent DNA damage in a mouse spermatocyte-derived cell line: a protective role of melatonin. (2013). 1 Lui C et al.  Int J Radiat Biol. 2013 Nov;89(11):993-1001
  • Recent reports of Wi-Fi and mobile phone-induced radiation on oxidative stress and reproductive signaling pathways in females and males. (2013) Nazıroğlu M J Membr Biol. 2013 Dec;246(12):869-75.
  • Oxidative stress induced by 1.8 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic radiation and effects of garlic extract in rats. (2012)  Avci B et al. Int J Radiat Biol. 2012 Nov;88(11):799-805.
  • Evidence for mobile phone radiation exposure effects on reproductive pattern of male rats: role of ROS. Kesari KK, Behari J. Electromagn Biol Med. 2012 Sep;31(3):213-22.
  • Cell phones and male infertility: a review of recent innovations in technology and consequences.  Agarwal A et al. Int Braz J Urol. 2011; 37(4):432-54.
  • Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic wave exposure from cellular phones on the reproductive pattern in male Wistar rats. (2011)  Kesari KK,  Kumar S, Behari J. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2011 Jun;164(4):546-59.
  • Adolescent in-school cellphone habits: A census of rules, survey of their effectiveness, and fertility implications. Reproductive Toxicology. (2011) Redmayne et al. Volume 32, Issue 3 react-text: 70 , /react-text react-text: 71 November 2011 /react-text react-text: 72 , Pages 354-359.
  • Microwave exposure affecting reproductive system in male rats. (2010)  Kesari KK, Behari J. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2010 Sep;162(2):416-28.
  • Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study. (2009)  Agarwal A. Fertil Steril. 2009 Oct;92(4):1318-25.
  •  Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) from GSM (0.9/1.8GHz) mobile phones induces oxidative stress and reduces sperm motility in rats. (2009) Mailankot M. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2009;64(6):561-5.
  • Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study. (2008)  Agarwal,A.  Fertil Steril. 2008. Jan;89.
  • Cell phones and male infertility: dissecting the relationship. (2007) Deepinder F. Reprod Biomed Online. 2007 Sep;15(3):266-70.
  • Effects of cellular phone emissions on sperm motility in rats. (2007) Yan JG, Agresti M. Fertility Sterility, 2007;88(4):957-964.