Biological and Cellular Mechanisms

Scientific Literature

Update 4/2/21

An increasing number of research studies show biologic effects from microwave radio frequency radiation including cardiac, cell membrane, DNA and RNA damage, immune system, melatonin, nervous system effects, oxidation/antioxidation, stress protein synthesis without heating of tissues.  How can this be explained if non-thermal exposures of  non-ionizing radiation cannot heat tissue or move electrons from molecules as radiation from X-rays and nuclear systems do?  Microwave electromagnetic radiation is absorbed by water. It can thus penetrate our bodies and affect cell structures. Mechanisms proposed are effects on cell signaling such as with voltage gated calcium channels (cell membrane), creation of reactive oxygen species as well as acoustic wave formation that can affect water molecules.

Creasey and Goldberg (2001) reviewed the literature on biologic effects of electromagnetic fields in Creasey and Goldberg 2001-Review EMF Bioeffect Mechanisms. They discuss 3 major older theories and a new theory by Dr. Panagopoulos:  1) Resonance of molecules with altered charges, causing  effects on calcium or potassium gated cell membrane channels 2) Biological magnetite effects 3) Magnetically sensitive reactions and  4) that of Dr. Dimitris Panagopoulos from the University of Athens who discussing membrane transport of oscillating ions through electrical, not magnetic effects.

Physicists vs Biologists: Physicists State RF Energy is Not High Enough to Cause Damage, But Now Both Physicists and Biologists Explain Effects via Dielectric Permittivity, Radical Pairs and Oxidation

As stated above, it has long been believed that non-ionizing (RF) radiation could not be harmful to living organisms as RF radiation did not break chemical bonds or have enough energy to remove an electron from (ionize) an atom or molecule. It was felt radio frequency radiation damaged tissue only through a heating or burning mechanism. We are now learning that microwave radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from wireless devices acts as an environmental stressor with direct oxidative toxic effects on cellular processes that are not related to heat or to ionization. The effect of radiofrequency EMR is indirect, inducing biochemical changes in cellular structures and their membranes.

Many physicists argue vehemently that there could not be a biologically toxic effect from electromagnetic radiation, however, toxicity has been demonstrated in many research investigations and is similar to effects from other chemical exposures. Their own publications now explain the effects of dielectric permittivity and radical pair mechanisms.

Hinrikus (2018), a physicist and Associate Editor at the International Journal of Radiation Biology (IJRB)  explains, “The cumulative impact of coherent MW field in a medium has been convincingly confirmed by the measurable dielectric permittivity of the medium. The described mechanism of MW field-induced effect confirms that the nature of the effect differs from the thermal effect and that the exposure by MW radiation can create the specific consequences in biology and materials not characteristic for conventional heating.”

Nielson (2019) states, “Weak radiofrequency (RF) magnetic fields in the MHz-range was shown to influence the concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living cells [1–4]. Remarkably, the energy that could possibly be deposited by such radiation is orders of magnitude smaller than the energy of molecular thermal motion. A plausible explanation to the observed effect relies on the interaction of RF magnetic fields with transient radicals within the cells, affecting the ROS formation rates through the radical pair mechanism [5–9].”

Henshaw (2020), a former nuclear physicist and former Associate Editor of the International Journal of Radiation Biology (IJRB), Denis Henshaw has criticized the assertions made by some physicists in his 2020 update on quantum energy and RFR. He States,  “This ancient assertion has been put more explicitly: radio waves used by cell phones lack the quantum energy to eject electrons from atoms or molecules and therefore cannot cause cancer.” He argues this assertion is a fallacy, and he explains the DNA damage is an indirect effect similar to chemicals and asbestos.  The carcinogenicity effect is termed “The Bystander Effect.” He goes on to explain that the Radical Pair Mechanism “is the process by which low intensity magnetic fields can alter the spin state of pairs of free radicals”, making them more available to cause biologic damage. Henshaw Update 12-April-2020 Non-ionising radiation quantum energy fallacy V2 Henshaw Update 12-April-2020 Non-ionising radiation quantum energy fallacy V2

Review Articles Biologic Mechanisms

Biological and Cellular Mechanisms Tab Pages below:

In addition, compendiums of research are available, such as in the Bioinitiative Report with a long list of  reviewed studies  BioInitiative.org as well as Military compendiums Military and Government Reports. 

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