The Telecommunications Industry promises ubiquitous and unlimited mobile internet access with the next generation of 5G technologies. This 5th generation (5G) system uses much higher frequency electromagnetic radiation with Gigahertz (Ghz) wavelengths in the millimeter range. The 5G deployment proposes to add frequencies in the microwave spectrum in the low- (0.6 GHz – 3.7 GHz), mid- (3.7 – 24 GHz), and high-band frequencies (24 GHz and higher) for faster communications. Published scientific literature is listed below.
5G short fast wavelengths: 5G high frequency wavelengths are short and in the millimeter range. This is in contrast to the 2G, 3G and 4G telecommunications systems which use longer centimeter-length microwave frequencies in the megahertz (MHz) range. Industry states the deployment of 5G will increase productivity, boost the economy and give us a sense of well-being. In order to accomplish this, they will not just be using just 5G short wavelengths to transmit data, but will integrate 5G with current 3G and 4G systems, with plans to add much of the remaining spectrum in the microwave frequencies. Industry states this will operate fluidly in a highly dense cell antenna arrangement throughout neighborhoods and cities. This cell antenna network will accommodate multiple types of access technologies, multi-layer networks, multiple types of devices, multiple types of user interactions including self-driving automobiles and massive industrial automation.
More Frequencies constant Exposure: This means that the human population as well as other species will be exposed to an even larger mix of frequencies continuously inside and outside the home. Industry is fast-tracking placement of cell antennas for this new technology by promoting new legislation on a local, state and federal level. This will preempt local authority to place antenna on potentially every public utility pole and preexisting cell tower structure.
Health and Environmental Effects: What are the public health implications of this novel technology? What research supports its safety? What research indicates harmful effects? What are the implications for the unsolved privacy and security issues that are also related to health as products are being developed to interface with the medical community and patients? What are the contributions to global climate change? What are the societal and mental health effects in a population increasingly addicted to this technology and disconnected with each other? Patients and physicians are becoming increasingly aware of these related issues and concerned about the long term consequences of our convenient yet problematic wireless technologies. There appear to be more questions than answers.
Research: A review of the literature reveals that there is inadequate research into 5G health and environmental effects. There is science which shows both harmful and beneficial effects but no long term studies have been performed on 5G or any research on the mix of frequencies we would be exposed to. Critical long term health studies are lacking for 3G and 4G wireless technologies as well as 5G. Current FCC standards are based only on heat effects for all telecommunications radiofrequencies and not biological effects seen with low level exposures that do not heat tissues.
Millimeter Wavelengths Uses and Hazards: Millimeter wavelengths have been used in non-invasive complementary medicine in many Eastern European countries. Millimeter wavelengths (at high intensity) have also been used in military applications in active denial systems. Some research on non-thermal effects has shown that millimeter wavelengths target cell membranes and have adverse biological effects as well as clinical effects such as cataracts, immune system alterations and physiological effects on the heart and blood pressure. Adverse effects have been found in bacteria and insects. The cellular and organism effects are nonlinear and depend on a variety of individual factors as well as specific wavelengths, phasing and modulation of the wavelength signals. With widespread exposure even small physiologic alterations would be magnified in a population and contribute to a negative public health outcome.
IEEE: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is an industry association primarily composed of engineers, computer scientists, software developers, information technology professionals, physicists, scientists, and allied professionals. It is the world’s largest technical professional association. Their input has been pivotal in setting standards for radiofrequency exposures. The IEEE performs its own research and is involved in computer and wireless technology product development. Some of their research is included in this section. Even in their 2015 report on 5G “Safe for Generations to Come” the authors state “At this time, more reports of beneficial effects than detrimental effects from low-level exposure to mmWave radiation appear to exist in the literature, but this area needs to be better understood, and the specific effects need to be demonstrated reproducibly by independent investigators before any potential non-thermal effects are to be considered in determining the regulatory limits on this regime of nonionizing radiation.” So far science is not sufficient to support the safety of this technology.
Moratorium on 5G Technology: It is notable that a large group of scientists and physicians who have researched the biological and health effects of radiofrequency radiation have called for a moratorium on the use of 5G technologies until more research is done. Scientists call for 5G Moratorium
Published Literature 5G High Frequency, Gigahertz RF
- The distinguishing effects of low intensity electromagnetic radiation of different extremely high frequencies on Enterococcus hirae: growth rate inhibition and scanning electron microscopy analysis. (2017) Hovnanyan K et al. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2017. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28609553
- Effect of acute millimeter wave exposure on dopamine metabolism of NGF-treated PC12 cells. (2017) Haas AJ et al. J Radiat Res. 2017 Feb 24:1-7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28339776
- Effects of 60-GHz millimeter waves on neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells using high-content screening. (2016) Haas AJ et al. Neurosci Lett. 2016 Apr 8;618:58-65. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26921450
- Millimeter waves or extremely high frequency electromagnetic fields in the environment: what are their effects on bacteria? (2016) Soghomonyan D, Trchounian K, Trchounian A Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 100(11):4761-71. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27087527?dopt=Abstract
- 5G: The Convergence of Wireless Communications. (2015) Chávez-Santiago et al. Wirel Pers Commun. 83: 1617–1642. doi: 10.1007/s11277-015-2467-2 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4821549/
- Will Millimeter Waves Maximize 5G Wireless? (2015) Larry Greenemeier. Scientific America. Jun 23, 2015 https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/will-millimeter-waves-maximize-5g-wireless/
- Safe for Generations to Come. (2015) Wu T et al. (2015) IEEE Microw Mag. 16(2): 65–84. doi: 10.1109/MMM.2014.2377587 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4629874/
- “The Human Body and Millimeter-Wave Wireless Communication Systems: Interactions and Implications,” (2015). Accepted in 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), NYU WIRELESS. (Wu et al., 2015A) Wu T, Rappaport TS, Collins CM, 2015 https://arxiv.org/pdf/1503.05944.pdf
- Millimeter wave promotes the synthesis of extracellular matrix and the proliferation of chondrocyte by regulating the voltage-gated K+ channel. (2014) Li X et al. J Bone Miner Metab. 2014 Jul;32(4):367-77. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24202060
- Effects of millimeter wave irradiation and equivalent thermal heating on the activity of individual neurons in the leech ganglion. (2014) Romanenko S et al. J Neurophysiol. 112(10): 2423–2431. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4233276/
- Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Contribution of Thermal and the Specific Effects in Cellular Response to Millimeter Wave Exposure. (2014) Habauzit et al., PlosOne.Habauzit, D. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0109435
- State of knowledge on biological effects at 40–60 GHz. (2013) Dréan et al., Comptes Rendus Physique, 14(5): 402-411 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070513000480
- Bactericidal effects of low-intensity extremely high frequency electromagnetic field: an overview with phenomenon, mechanisms, targets and consequences. (2013) Torgomyan and Trchounian. Crit Rev Microbiol. 39(1):102-11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22667685
- Millimeter waves: acoustic and electromagnetic. (2013) Bioelectromagnetics. 2013 Jan;34(1):3-14. Ziskin MC. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22926874
- Antenna Concepts for Millimeter-Wave Automotive Radar Sensors. (2012) Menzel W, and Moebius A, 2012. Proceedings of the IEEE. 100(7). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6165323/
- Millimeter-Wave Cellular Wireless Networks: Potentials and Challenges. (2012) Sundeep et al. Proceedings of the IEEE. 102(3). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6732923/
- Modeling of reflectometric and ellipsometric spectra from the skin in the terahertz and submillimeter waves region. (2011) Ney and Abdulhalim. Biomed Opt. 16(6):067006. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21721827
- Effects of millimeter waves radiation on cell membrane – A brief review. (2010) Ramundo-Orlando A. Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves. 2010; 31(12):1400–1411. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10762-010-9731-z
- Protein changes in macrophages induced by plasma from rats exposed to 35 GHz millimeter waves. (2010) Sypniewska RK et al. Bioelectromagnetics. 2010 Dec;31(8):656-63. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20683908
- The Active Denial System: A Revolutionary, Non-lethal Weapon for Today’s Battlefield. (2009). Levine S. Center for Technology and National Security Policy National Defense University. National Defense University Press. http://ndupress.ndu.edu/Media/News/Article/1229000/dtp-065-the-active-denial-system-a-revolutionary-non-lethal-weapon-for-todays-b/
- The response of giant phospholipid vesicles to millimeter waves radiation. (2009) Ramundo-Orlando et al. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Biomembranes. 1788(7):1497–1507. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0005273609001175
- [Effects of millimeter wave on gene expression in human keratinocytes]. (2008) Chen et al. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 37(1):23-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18275115
- Human skin as arrays of helical antennas in the millimeter and submillimeter wave range. (2008) Feldman et al. Phys Rev Lett. 100(12):128102 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18517913
- Gene expression changes in the skin of rats induced by prolonged 35 GHz millimeter-wave exposure. (2008) Millenbaugh NJ et al. Radiat Res. 2008 Mar;169(3):288-300. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18302488
- [Thermoelastic excitation of acoustic waves in biological models under the effect of the high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency]. (2007) Gapeev AB et al. Biofizika. 2007 Nov-Dec;52(6):1087-92. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18225661
- Comparison of blood pressure and thermal responses in rats exposed to millimeter wave energy or environmental heat. (2006) Millenbaugh et al., Shock. 25(6):625-32. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16721271
- Low-Intensity Electromagnetic Millimeter Waves for Pain Therapy.(2006) Taras et al. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 3(2): 201–207. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1475937/
- [The study of the mechanisms of formation of reactive oxygen species in aqueous solutions on exposure to high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequencies]. (2005) Gugkova OIu. Biofizika. 2005 Sep-Oct;50(5):773-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16248149
- [Indirect and repeated electromagnetic irradiation of extremely high freguency of bacteria Escherichia coli]. (2005) Isakhanian and Trchunian Biofizika. 50(4):689-92. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16212062
- Effect of millimeter waves on natural killer cell activation. (2005) Makar et al., Bioelectromagnetics. 26(1):10-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15605409 DOI: 10.1002/bem.20046
- Effects of low-intensity ultrahigh frequency electromagnetic radiation on inflammatory processes. (2004) Lushnikov et al., Bull Exp Biol Med. 137(4):364-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15452603
- [A comparison of the effects of millimeter and centimeter waves on tumor necrosis factor production in mouse cells]. (2004) Sinotova OA et al. Biofizika. 2004 May-Jun;49(3):545-50. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15327216
- [Effects of low-intensity extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation on chromatin structure of lymphoid cells in vivo and in vitro]. (2003) Gapeev et al. Radiats Biol Radioecol. (1):87-92. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12677665
- [Decrease in the intensity of the cellular immune response and nonspecific inflammation upon exposure to extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation]. (2003) Lushnikov et al. Biofizika. 48(5):918-25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14582420
- [Effects of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on the immune system and systemic regulation of homeostasis]. (2002) Lushnikov Radiats Biol Radioecol. 42(5):533-45. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12449822
- [Effect of millimeter waves on the immune system in mice with experimental tumors]. (2002) Novoselova EG et al. Biofizika. 2002 Sep-Oct;47(5):933-42. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12397969
- Reactions of keratinocytes to in vitro millimeter wave exposure. (2001) Szabo et al. Bioelectromagnetics. 22(5):358-64. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11424160
- Nonthermal effects of extremely high-frequency microwaves on chromatin conformation in cells in vitro—Dependence on physical, physiological, and genetic factors. (2000) Belyaev IY et al. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques. 2000; 48(11):2172-2179. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/884211/
- Effects of Microwave and Millimeter Wave Radiation on the Eye. (2000) In: Klauenberg B.J., Miklavčič D. (eds) Radio Frequency Radiation Dosimetry and Its Relationship to the Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields. D’Andrea and Chalfin. NATO Science Series (Series 3: High Technology), vol 82. Springer, Dordrecht. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-011-4191-8_43
- Skin heating effects of millimeter- wave irradiation-Thermal modeling results. (2000) Nelson et al. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 48:2111-2120.. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/884202/
- Heating and pain sensation produced in human skin by millimeter waves: comparison to a simple thermal model. (2000) Walters et al., Health Physics 78:259- 267. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10688448
- Radio frequency radiation of millimeter wave length: potential occupational safety issues relating to surface heating. (2000) Ryan KL et al. Health Phys. 2000 Feb;78(2):170-81. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10647983
- Current State and Implications of Research on Biological Effects of Millimeter Waves: A Review of the Literature. (1998) Andrei G. Pakhomov. Bioelectromagnetics 19:393–413 http://www.rife.org/otherresearch/millimeterwaves.html
- Effect of millimeter-band radiation of nonthermal intensity on the sensitivity of staphylococcus to various antibiotics.(1996) Bulgakova et al., Biofizika 41:1289-1293 (in Russian). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9044624
- Experimental studies on the influence of millimeter radiation on light transmission through the lens. (1994) Prost, M et al. Klin Oczna. 1994 Aug-Sep;96(8- 9):257-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7897988
- [Effect of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on the function of skin sensory endings]. (1992) Enin et al. Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter. Sep-Dec;(5-6):23-5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=1302819
- Effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter range on the cardio-vascular system of the white rat. (1992) Potekhina, et al. Fiziol Zh SSSR Im I M Sechenova. 1992 Jan;78(1):35-41 (in Russian). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1330714
- Absorption of millimeter waves by human beings and its biological implications. (1986) Gandhi and Riazi. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques. MTT-34(2):228-235. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/1133316/