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Conversion Chart Microwave Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) = (EMF)

To Print : Conversion Chart Microwave Electromagnetic Radiation PDF

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Levels of Concern and Exposure Limits

*  Low concern- Building Biologists benchmark

**  BioinInitiative- No observable effect on humans 

*** Extreme concern for long term exposure- Building Biologists benchmark-Building Biologist EMR Exposure Guidelines 

μW/m2  = Red  highlights are Current limits in U.S.


Conversion Chart EMR = EMF

Power equivalents— 1 μW/cm2 = 10,000 μW/m= 0.01 W/m2

Watts/Square Meter (W/m2)


microWatts/Square Meter (μW/m2)



microWatts/Square Centimeter (μW/cm2 )


0.000,000,000,000,1 W/m2 0.000,000,1 μW/m2 0.000,000,000,01 μW/cm2
0.000,000,000,001 W/m2 0.000,001 μW/m2 0.000,000,000,1 μW/cm2
0.000,000,000,01 W/m2 0.000,01 μW/m2 0.000,000,001 μW/cm2
0.000,000,000,1 W/m2   0.000,1 μW/m2 0.000,000,01 μW/cm2
0.000,000,001 W/m2 0.001 μW/m2 0.000,000,1 μW/cm2
0.000,000,01 W/m2 0.01 μW/m2 0.000,001 μW/cm2
0.000,000,1 W/m* 0.1 μW/m * 0.000,01 μW/cm*
0.000,001 W/m2 ** 1 μW/m2 ** 0.000,1 μW/cm2 **
0.000,01 W/m2 10 μW/m2 0.001 μW/cm2
0.000,1 W/m2 100 μW/m2 0.01 μW/cm2
0.001 W/m*** 1,000 μW/m*** 0.1 μW/cm2 ***
0.01 W/m2 10,000 μW/m2 1 μW/cm2
0.1 W/m2 100,000 μW/m2 10 μW/cm2
1 W/m2 1,000,000 μW/m2 100 μW/cm2
10 W/m2 10,000,000 μW/m2 1,000 μW/cm2
100 W/m2 100,000,000 μW/m2 10,000 μW/cm2
1000 W/m2 1,000,000,000 μW/m2 100,000 μW/cm2



Wireless Exposure Limits in Different Countries

The limits are for frequencies between 300Mhz-300GHz in microwatts/cm2 

Limit guidelines in U.S. are from 200 uW/cm2 to 1000 uW/cm2 (2 W/m2 to 10 W/m2) for RF radiation depending on frequency.

U.S.                                   200 microwatts/cm2  to 1,000 microwatts/cm2

Canada                           1,000 microwatts/cm2

China                                               10 microwatts/cm2

Russia                                              10 microwatts/cm2

Italy                                                 10 microwatts/cm2

France                                             10 microwatts/cm2

Poland                                             10 microwatts/cm2

Hungary                                          10 microwatts/cm2

Switzerland General                         9.5 microwatts/cm2

Switzerland Schools and Hospitals   4.25 microwatts/cm2

Belgium                                                        2.4 microwatts/cm2

Bulgaria                                                        2.4 microwatts/cm2

Luxembourg                                                2.4 microwatts/cm2

Ukraine                                                         2.4 microwatts/cm2

Lichtenstein                                                         0.1 microwatts/cm2

Austria  Outdoor                                                        0.001 microwatts/cm2

Austria  Indoor                                                                 0.0001 microwatts/cm2


Cosmic EMR background we evolved from                         <0.00000000001 μW/cm2


BioInitiative Report recommendation – ‘No Observable Effect’  with factor of 10 added for safety = 0.0003 microwatts/cm2.


Austrian Medical Association Exposure Limits

“In general, a wide variety of forms of EMF exposure (e.g. from cordless phones, wireless internet access, electrical installations and electrical devices in the building, mobile phone base stations, radio and TV transmitters, high-voltage lines or transformer stations) may be the root causes of health problems….Irrespective of the ICNIRP recommendations for acute effects, the following benchmarks apply to regular exposure of more than four hours per day…” AMA

High-frequency electromagnetic radiation (as power flow density)

0.1 μW/cm2   (≥1000 μW/m2 ) (≥1 mW/m2)—Very  far above normal
μW/cm2   to  0.1 μW/cm2   (10-1000 μW/m2) (0.01-1 mW/m2)- Far above normal

0.000,1 μW/cm2   to  0.001 μW/cm2   (1-10 μW/m2) (0.001-0.01 mW/m2)- Slightly above normal

Less than 0.000,1 μW/cm2   (≤1 μW/m2) (≤0.001 mW/m2) – Within normal limits


“The benchmarks listed are intended to be applied to individual types of radiation, e.g. GSM, UMTS, WiMAX, TETRA, radio, TV, DECT or WLAN, and refer to peak levels. The benchmarks do not apply to radar, which must be evaluated separately. Highly critical types of radiation, such as periodic signals (mobile telephony, DECT, WLAN, digital broadcasting…), should be critically evaluated, especially if levels are far above normal, while less critical types, such as non-pulsed or non-periodic signals (USW, shortwave, medium and long wave, analogue broadcasting), may be considered more leniently.” AMA

Low-frequency alternating electric fields

≥10 V/m  Very far above normal

1.5-10 V/m -Far above normal

0.3-1.5 V/m- Slightly above normal

≤0.3 V/m – Within normal limits

The benchmarks (potential-free measurement) are intended to be applied to the range up to and around 50 Hz; higher frequencies and distinct harmonics should be more critically evaluated.


Exposure Limits for Radio frequency Energy: Three Models

Ken Foster, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

This article points out that different long term exposure limits in different countries is due to different models of reasoning.

  • Heat: The U.S. uses science based studies but only those that examine heat based adverse effects. They do not take into account studies on non-thermal adverse effects.
  • Non-Thermal Effects:  Russia and China use science based studies on non-thermal effects.
  • Precautionary: Switzerland, Italy and many other countries use precautionary language for their long term exposure limits


“Thus, Russian (and Eastern European) limits clearly reflect the conviction that long-term (hours or more) exposures at levels far below Western limits result in adverse health effects. Indeed, the Russian and Eastern European medical literature contains many reports of health effects from low-level exposure to RF energy. These include, for example, nonspecific problems (such as headaches, fatigability, irritability, sleep disorders, and dizziness) in workers in radio factories, who are exposed to RF energy at undetermined levels11 12. The Chinese literature contains similar reports.13 The Russian literature contains references to a “microwave disease” characterized by “asthenic, asthenovegetatic, and hypothalamic syndromes”14 The disease is not recognized in Western medicine, and its diagnostic criteria would undoubtedly strike many Western physicians as vague and nonfalsifiable. Even some Eastern European physicians have complained about the nonspecificity of these criteria as well.15 16″

Russia Explains Protective Standards for EMR

Russian National Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection – 2008 report: This sobering report discusses the need for exposure guidelines that protect children and the general population from chronic levels of radio frequency radiation.


Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and EMF RF standards. New conditions of EMF RF exposure and guarantee of the health to population.  Prof. Yu. Grigoriev,  Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection Federal Medical Biophysical Centre, FMBA, Moscow, Russia.



Natural and Human-activity Generated Electromagnetic Fields on Earth. 2012). Alasdair Philips and Grahma Lamburn.