Eye, Sleep and Skin Effects

Updated 6/9/20

Note: Scientific Articles follow the summary

Scientific Literature

Blue Light, Retinal Damage, Computer Vision Syndrome, Skin Damage, Melatonin Reduction from Screens, Circadian Rhythm disruption, Myopia, and Wireless Radiation Oxidation

Digital Screen Time: Dry Eye, Cataracts, Computer Vision Syndrome

It is well established that eye structures are harmed by exposure to solar UV radiation. Points De Vue 2017 That is why ophthalmologists and optometrists advise wearing UV protective sunglasses when outdoors. Newer research is now demonstrating a host of serious risks associated with exposure to digital screens, blue light and radiofrequency radiation from wireless devices.  The American Academy of Ophthalmology is concerned that too much screen time is now affecting children’s vision, including myopia and dry eye symptoms. Retinal phototoxicity from blue light is now established as a risk. Sleep and human circadian sleep disruption by blue light is considered essentially proven by health authorities. Increased screen time is now identified as a risk factor for dry eye syndrome and computer vision syndrome. Research has also revealed damage to skin from radiation from digital screens as well.

Researchers are concerned as our exposure to artificial blue-rich lighting is almost constant.  The number of commercial products using blue lights has mushroomed and includes not only screens we stare at all day and night but also commercial products such as decorative string lights and toys which have bare LEDs. Even short exposures can have disruptive effects,

Skin is Vulnerable

The skin is the largest organ of the body and vulnerable to injury from many environmental factors. We are well informed about the dangers of UV exposures from the sun and suntanning booths, which can cause skin cancers, loss of skin elasticity and aging.  Arjmandi (2018)  spotlights the lesser known hazard of blue light, emitted from light emitting diodes (LED) screens, on skin. He describes the known mechanism of oxidative damage to the skin from exposure to both UV radiation, and the more recent addition of  LEDs to our environment.

LED lights are widely used on cell phones, laptops, tablets, televisions and overhead lighting, in the effort to save energy. We now get almost constant exposure to blue light while we are awake day and night and both indoors on screens and outdoors on streetlights.  In reviewing the literature on blue light harm in his article, “Can Light Emitted from Smartphone Screens and Taking Selfies Cause Premature Aging and Wrinkles?“,  research shows the answer is yes, and with just one hour of screen time at 1cm. We hold the phone closer than that on a call.  He underscores that the effects of long term and intermittent exposures to skin are not known.

Screen Use and Acne

Published papers report that in vitro (lab experiments) blue light kills skin bacteria. While researchers are hopeful it will be used as phototherapy for acne, Taheri (2017) used the actual cell phone screens to see what they would do to staphylococcus aureus, a common acne bacteria.  His group found, for the first time, that exposure to tablet and smartphone screen radiation significantly increased the rate of growth of staphylococcus bacteria and the maximum growth was at 300 minutes of exposure. It is possible that there is a combination of factors involved, as Sid- Salman (2019) found that a Wi Fi router increased antibiotic resistance and motility of E Coli and increased metabolic activity and  biofilm production in Staphylococcus Aureus and Staphylococcus Epidermis.

eye-1173863_1920Eyes Are Vulnerable

The eyes are uniquely vulnerable as they have no outer protective layer. Studies demonstrate cumulative damage to the cornea and lens of the eye with long-term UV/sunlight exposure (noted above) and now evidence is also pointing to blue light and  non-ionizing radiation from wireless devices as causal agent for cataracts with a similar mechanism of oxidative damage.

Blue Light, Retinal Damage, Insomnia and Chronic Disease

Published data is documenting that LED blue light from screens and lighting is a true risk for oxidative retinal damage and circadian rhythm disruption, as well as melatonin reduction causing sleep disruption. Sleep disruption (or chronic insomnia) can have a profound effect on our health, and is associated with a host of chronic diseases, including cancer, obesity, high blood pressure, heart disease, poor memory, depression and anxiety, as well as poor learning performance. Melatonin, an important internal antioxidant, also protects eye structures from oxidative damage from a variety of sources.

French Health Authority Publishes Expert Appraisal of Blue Light

In 2014 ANES, the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety, convened a Working Group to assess the effects on human health and the environment of systems using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Their goal was to measure current real life levels of blue light exposure of children, the general public and workers to blue light and then to assess risks. This was in response to policies developed to remove halogen and incandescent lighting to reduce energy consumption.

They found that blue light has phototoxic, circadian rhythm and sleep effects.  Blue light produces more glare and there is also more variation in light intensity depending on the power supply.

 ICNIRP Guidelines for Blue Light Are Obsolete

ANES noted that the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)  guidelines published in 2013 for blue light were the same as those published in 1997 and involved only acute exposure and did not take into consideration that children’s eye are more vulnerable with more blue light entering the eye. More over there are no regulations for circadian rhythm disruption, glare or light modulation.

ANES Published Results 2019: Findings

  • The risk of circadian disruption associated with exposure to blue-rich LED lights in the evening or at night is high and likely to adversely affect sleep duration and quality and impact cognitive functions
  • Circadian rhythm disruption is a higher risk in infants, children, adolescents and young adults (due to a clear lens); pregnant women (potential health effects on the unborn child); night workers; those with sleep disorders and possibly those with migraines
  • Professionals with potentially high exposure to LED lighting (surgeons, dentists, lighting professionals, lighting distributors, performing artists, people working in sport facilities, people working in agri-food facilities using LEDs (greenhouses, aquaculture), etc.) are at higher risk
  • The retinal phototoxicity of acute (for less than eight hours) exposure to blue-rich light is proven
  • The contribution of chronic (for several years) retinal exposure to blue-rich light (including sunlight) to the occurrence of ARMD is proven
  • Studies have shown that the exposure limits (ELs) selected by ICNIRP for the retinal toxicity of light are not sufficiently protective
  • The effect of blue-rich light on myopia is possible (whether positive or negative)
  • The effect of blue-rich light on the occurrence of Sjögren syndrome is possible

Cataracts on the Rise

There is a continued rise in the prevalence and incidence of cataract surgery which is attributed to better access and diagnosis, without consideration of ubiquitous environmental causes, such as increased screen time with blue light exposure. With children, whose  systems are still developing and who are now exposed to screens at home and now mandated at school, there are even more serious concerns.


Computer Vision Syndrome and Dry Eye

Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) is an increasingly recognized but an under-diagnosed syndrome resulting from prolonged screen time with video display terminals (computers, laptops, tablets, cell phones).  Symptoms include include headache, eyestrain, tired eyes, irritation, redness, blurred vision, and double vision. Dry eye symptoms often accompany CVS with reduced blinking rate and increased corneal exposure. There is evidence that atrophy of  the lubricating meibomian glands around the eyes are involved as well. Researchers warn that people spending more than 4 hours a day at the screen are at major risk to develop dry eye symptoms and computer vision syndrome.  It is estimated that 50 to 90 % of  students and those who use computers at work experience this. The American Academy of Ophthalmology has recommendations to reduce eye strain with the use of digital devices.

Eye Strain

Using cell phones and tablets at close distances to view movies or read for long periods causes eyestrain. A study by Long (2017),  Viewing distance and eyestrain symptoms with prolonged viewing of smartphones of young adults using a cell phone for 60 minute to read showed a significant increase in eye strain, with students reporting tired eyes, uncomfortable eyes and blurred vision. Another study by Antona (2018), Symptoms associated with reading from a smartphone in conditions of light and dark showed significant eyestrain from using a smartphone for prolonged periods versus a hardcopy, especially if the smartphone was used in the dark.

The 20-20-20 Vision Rule

Staring at screens from computers, cell phones, gaming, tablets and television for long periods of time can cause eye fatigue and computer vision syndrome with blurred vision tearing, and headaches. To reduce eye strain it is recommended to use the 20-20-20 rule: Every 20 Minutes look at something 20 feet away for 20 seconds. It is also recommended to:

  • Position your screen an arms length away from your eyes and at 20 degrees below eye level
  • Alternate from looking at your screen to looking at paperwork and your surroundings
  • Match the brightness of your screen with surroundings
  • Remember to blink. When we are not on the computer we blink 12 times a minute but when on the computer we blink only 5 times a minute
  • See a physician if you have symptoms of computer vision syndrome
  • Consider a low blue light computer shield or low blue light glasses from a reputable company that reduce blue light.

China Bans Digital Screens in Classrooms to Prevent Eye Damage

Because of the growing evidence for the risk of eye damage from digital screens and research showing an association with myopia, China has banned cell phones from classrooms. See China Bans Smart Phones in Schools . The Ministry of Education and the National Health Commission has banned the use of cell phones and tablets in classrooms in Shandong province and asked parents and teachers to:

  • Not rely on electronic devices for teaching and assignments and use written assignments
  • Limit children’s use of electronic screens not more than one hour a day and not exceed 15 minutes in a single session
  • Keep proper distance from eyes and screens
  • Have correct reading positions
  • Have sufficient backlighting

Retinal Oxidative Eye Damage and Blindness From Blue Light

Researchers from Sweden in 2006 reviewed  the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. In their paper looking at light damage, Age-related maculopathy and the impact of blue light hazard, they note that oxidative stress and free radical formation cause damage to cellular structures in the retina, leading to inflammation and lipofuscin deposition. They recommended antioxidants to slow age-related macular degeneration, which is more common after the age of 60.

University of Toledo scientists in the Department of Chemistry published a study in 2018 showing that exposure to Blue Light caused damage and death to photoreceptor cells in the retina.  These photo receptor cells cannot regenerate, speeding up macular degeneration, which leads to blindness. Another 2018 study from Spain, Removal of the blue component of light significantly decreases retinal damage after high intensity exposure, demonstrated a 94% blue-blocking filter decreases significantly photoreceptor damage after exposure to high intensity light.

Osborne (2017)  has researched the adverse effects of blue light on retinal  mitochondria and found,  “Neurones of the central nervous system have an absolute dependence on mitochondrial generated ATP. Laboratory studies show that short-wave or blue light (400–480 nm) that impinges on the retina affect flavin  and cytochrome constituents associated with mitochondria to decrease the rate of ATP formation, stimulate ROS and results in cell death. This suggests that blue light could potentially have a negative influence on retinal ganglion cell  (RGC) mitochondria”.  Shang (2017), Aadane (2015), Shang (2014), Chamorro (2013) and Behar-Cohen (2011) are among others who have also demonstrated the serious oxidative effects of blue light from digital screens.

Research has shown that non-thermally related radio frequency radiation (RFR) can also cause ocular pathology and eye damage, with the creation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This is an important consideration with exposure to wireless radio frequency radiation in 2G, 3G, 4G systems. It is an even higher concern for 5G proposed short millimeter wave technology, as this very short high frequency radiation has been shown to create more damage and higher heat concentration with use. Research on the adverse health effects on the eyes for  2G, 3G and 4G let alone 5G are severely lacking while wireless devices are increasingly being placed in close proximity to our brains and eyes. (Fernandez 2018, Sage 2018)

Blue Light from Digital Devices Blocks Melatonin, Sleep and Shifts the Circadian Clock

Researchers have now proven that use of digital devices at night such as cell phones, tablets, computers and TV’s with LED lighting and even overhead LED lighting, can interrupt sleep patterns as they emit blue light frequencies.  Blue light hits receptors in retinal ganglion cells which sends a message to the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus, the seat of the central circadian clock. This retinal clock then sends the message to the rest of the body in order to synchronize all of the biological functions with the day/night cycle.(ANES)  The secretion of the sleep signaling hormone melatonin by the pineal gland occurs only in darkness and is  suppressed by blue light, thus altering the circadian rhythm. 

 West (2011) demonstrated that the strongest melatonin response was between 446 nm and 477 nm.  In a recent study by UCSF, Direct Measurements of Smartphone Screen-Time: Relationships with Demographics and Sleep. scientists concluded,”Longer average screen-times during bedtime and the sleeping period were associated with poor sleep quality, decreased sleep efficiency, and longer sleep onset latency.” A other recent study by Chindamo (2019), Sleep and new media usage in toddlers, found everyday use of a tablet or smartphone raised the odds of a shorter total sleep time and a longer sleep onset latency. Excess screen time is also associated with other health issues as described in this paper by Kenny(2017), United States Adolescents’ Television, Computer, Videogame, Smartphone, and Tablet Use: Associations with Sugary Drinks, Sleep, Physical Activity, and Obesity.

Circadian Shifts With Blue Light

A Harvard study found that blue light suppressed melatonin for about twice as long as the green light and shifted circadian rhythms by twice as much as green light. The circadian shift was 3 hours for blue light and 1.5 hours for green light.

A study by Chang (2015), Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness, demonstrated that these LED devices can shift our natural sleep clock. The researches compared 2 groups of participants. One group read an e-book with LED (peak 450nm) lighting 4 hours before bed and the second group read a printed book again 4 hours before bed.  In the  e readers they found lower melatonin levels, less REM sleep and after 5 days they demonstrated  a 1.5 hour phase shift in circadian clock., thus it took longer for them to fall asleep. Although at night the e readers were more alert, in the morning they were less alert. The researchers conclude, “Our findings provide evidence that the electric light to which we are exposed between dusk and bedtime has profound biological effects.”

Unborn Babies at Risk From Blue Light

Although blue light does not directly reach the fetus, scientists have found that the maternal reduction in melatonin, a potent internally produced antioxidant, may affect fetal neurodevelopment and be associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Jin 2018). Studies have shown that melatonin is a critical hormone that is neuropcrotecive in ASD and also protects from DNA damage.(Braam 2018)showed that melatonin “levels were significantly lower in mothers with an ASD child.”

Reiter (2013) notes that melatonin serves and important role in reproduction.”Melatonin is a multifaceted molecule with direct free radical scavenging and indirect antioxidant activities. Melatonin is produced in both the ovary and in the placenta where it protects against molecular mutilation and cellular dysfunction arising from oxidative/nitrosative stress….Optimal circadian rhythmicity in the mother is important since her circadian clock, either directly or indirectly via the melatonin rhythm, programs the developing master oscillator of the fetus.” Disrupted melatonin cycles are associated with disturbances in behavior in the newborn.

Hsu (2020) reviewed the literature and concludes that reduction in maternal melatonin could affect signaling pathways, predisposing the fetus to a number of adult chronic health conditions. They describe the critical role that melatonin plays in development. Melatonin receptors are present in many tissues in the human fetal brain. Although the fetal pineal gland does not secrete melatonin until after birth, maternal pineal melatonin does cross the placenta. Maternal light signals thus can be transferred to the fetus. The biological clock is run by a complex system of molecular signals affecting transcription and stress pathways. The authors note, “Placenta-derived melatonin acts as an autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine hormone in a non-circadian fashion…Placenta-derived melatonin not only acts with the MT1 and MT2 receptors but also directly scavenges free radicals, which reduce oxidative damage to placental tissues.”

French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety on LED Lights 2019

ANES, the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety published an extensive independent report on the “effects on human health and the environment (fauna and flora) systems using light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

They noted, Over the past few decades, humans have considerably increased their exposure to blue light in the evening with artificial lighting and backlights rich in blue light…the Working Group’s experts consider that the risk of circadian disruption associated with exposure to blue-rich LED lights in the evening or at night is high. In particular, exposure before bedtime to LED lighting or screens from televisions or communication technologies enriched with blue light is likely to adversely affect sleep duration and quality and impact cognitive functions.” Their 2019 report is here- 5G ANSES French Study Blue Light 2020.

Doctors Warn That LED City Street Lights Blue Spectrum Can Cause Sleep Disruption

In  2016 the American Medical Association warned cities that the new energy efficient street light that were being installed to combat global climate change can harm the retina, affect circadian rhythms and sleep patterns. Studies have shown that brighter residential nighttime lighting is associated with sleep disruption. AMA Board Member Maya A. Babu, M.D., M.B.A states, “Despite the energy efficiency benefits, some LED lights are harmful when used as street lighting, The new AMA guidance encourages proper attention to optimal design and engineering features when converting to LED lighting that minimize detrimental health and environmental effects.”

News on Harm From LED Street Lamps

Blue Light Blues: Melatonin Suppression and Breast Cancer

Blue light emitted from LED screens from computers, cell phones and tablets can inhibit melatonin production and alter circadian rhythms. Melatonin is a potent antioxidant, produced in the pineal gland, and is also found  in the retina where it modulates genes responsible for circadian rhythms via the ganglion cell layer (Blasiak 2016).   Researchers have found photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in the mammalian brain which are not related to image formation but direct circadian rhythms, pupil constriction and alertness through 465nm blue light Vandewalle(2018).

This cascade of biological effects contributes to a host of chronic disease states, including high blood pressure, depression and cancer.

Dr. David Blask and colleagues have conducted a series of studies showing that light suppresses melatonin leading to stimulation of breast cancer growth. When they grafted human MCF-7 breast cancer cell xenograft on mice and exposed one to light- light and the other to light-dark environments they found the light- light group had increased cancer cell growth rates. (Blask 2002)   The International Agencyfor Cancer Research (IARC) classified shift work that involves circadian disruption as a “probable carcinogen”. (IARC 2007)

See also  MDSafeTech Scientific Literature  on Sleep Melatonin and Light at Night. 

Harvard Recommendations for Reducing Blue Light Exposure

LED lights from lightbulbs, computers, cell phones, video games and tablets emit blue light from the screen.  Overhead LED lights that are now commonly used also emit more blue light than fluorescent light bulbs, and incandescent light bulbs emit the least blue light. Although much more energy efficient, LED lighting which has largely replaced incandescent in homes, businesses and street lights, may be creating a health risk through complex biologic effects on our melatonin levels and circadian rhythms.  Here are the Harvard guidelines  Blue light has a dark side. Updated August 13, 2018.


Protect yourself from blue light at night (Harvard 2018)

  • Use dim red lights for night lights. Red light has the least power to shift circadian rhythm and suppress melatonin.
  • Avoid looking at bright screens beginning two to three hours before bed.
  • If you work a night shift or use a lot of electronic devices at night, consider wearing blue-light blocking glasses or installing an app that filters the blue/green wavelength at night.
  • Expose yourself to lots of bright light during the day, which will boost your ability to sleep at night, as well as your mood and alertness during daylight.


sunglasses-1271913_1920Blue Light Blocking Glasses for Improved Physical and Mental Health

Amber colored blue light absorbing glasses, computer and cell phone screen covers have been developed to block blue light from artificial LED lighting and screens, typically 2-3 hours before bedtime.  More research needs to be done, however, scientists have found that using these blue light blocking devices may promote higher melatonin levels near bedtime thus reducing insomnia.  Evidence is showing the positive effects on blue light blocking glasses not only on sleep quality and timing (Zebrine 2018; Eskai 2016; Burkhart 2009) but also potentially on symptoms of mania in those with manic depressive symptoms by acting as physiologic “dark therapy” not necessarily related to melatonin production (Shirahama 2018; Henriksen 2016). Quality varies with the amount and spectrum of blue light blocked by different glasses. If you are purchasing glasses it is important to get high quality tested glasses and know which frequencies are blocked either full blue light blockage (400-500nm), full blue green blockage (400-550nm ) or specific blue frequencies (i.e.480nm) . In general the more full blue light spectrum blocked the better it will enhance melatonin production. Consumer Reports-3 Blue Blockers Put to the Test 

Apple has introduced “Nightshift” software into their new phones (OS9.3 and above)  that reduces blue light at night. You can access by pressing Settings >Display&Brightness >NightShift and set it to the times you wish the display to reduce blue light. Some research from the Lighting Research Center  has shown that  this Apple setting may not help you sleep as much as anticipated as the brightness of the screen and excess mental stimulation may also be factors on melatonin levels.

The Importance of Blocking Blue Light Peaks for Oxidation as well as for Normal Melatonin Production

Blue light spans 400 to 500nm.  Retinal damage is caused by the span of blue light from 400-500nm, as well as lesser damage from green light  500-550 nm. Peak blue light at about 430nm is known to cause the most oxidative damage with regards to age related macular degeneration (ARM) in studies.  Melatonin reduction has been found at a peak of about 450nm. It is important for full protection of the eyes to have full blue light blocking from 400-500nm. Many products sold have a very narrow range of blue light blocking. It is important to be aware of which parts of the blue light spectrum are absorbed by blue light blocking barriers before you purchase the glasses other blue light blocking products.

Dr. Vicente-Tejedor and colleagues demonstrated protection from blue light damage with broad blue light blocking. 

Blue light blcocking Vicenter Screen Shot 2020-05-07 at 1.52.36 PM

Excitation and metabolic cycle of rhodopsin depending on the use of the blue-blocking filter. Wavelengths of the spectrum from 400-500nm excite rhodopsin and generate toxic waste but also cause retinal degeneration. From “Removal of the blue component of light significantly decreases retinal damage after high intensity exposure.” Vicente-Tejedor (2018)

Dr. Charles Czeisler Discusses Broad Health Impacts of Poor Sleep

Charles A. Czeisler, MD, PhD, Chief, Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, explains the critical impacts of sleep on brain function and physical health. He states that sleep is the third pillar of good health along with nutrition and exercise. Lowering blue light at night is component of healthy sleep.   Dr. Czeisler , whose group  has worked with astronauts to reset their circadian rhythms before going into space research, highlights the many bodily systems effected by insomnia including

Fatal Collision: Harm from Wireless Eyewear

people-3365369_1920A new 2018 paper,  Fatal Collision: Are Wireless Headsets a Risk in Treating Patients?,   highlights the potential bodily  harm from wearing wireless headsets, augmented reality systems and glass-type eyewear.  Co-authored by Cindy Sage, who is also co- author of the Bioinitiative Report, this review article reveals that these devices, are connected to the internet and have similar radiation (2.4 and 5GHz) to cell phones. An association has been identified between long term cell phone use and brain cancers on the same side of the head. There is also the concern for lack of concentration and distraction when using these devices, similar to cell phones. Damage to eye structures is an obvious concern.

These wireless devices are increasingly being used in medicine (google glass-type wearables)  and by educators but no thought has been given to the harm from long term use. Children are seen in ads wearing wireless headsets for entertainment. It is the next best marketing and sales opportunity in technology.  Sage and Hardell note, “using wireless glass-type devices can expose the user to a specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1.11–1.46 W/kg of radiofrequency radiation. That RF intensity is as high as or higher than RF emissions of some cell phones. Prolonged use of cell phones used ipsilaterally at the head has been associated with statistically significant increased risk of glioma and acoustic neuroma.”  Studies are inadequate to determine safety of these wireless devices long term. There are to date insufficient protective guidelines for adults or children who are increasing using these devices for entertainment, in classrooms and therapeutically in medicine. Precautionary recommendations for use are needed.

Eye Absorption of Radiation from Cell Phones and Virtual Reality

A seminal paper Fernandez et al (2018) reveals that young eyes and brains absorb 2 to 5 fold more radiation than that of an adult. He cautions that we need to reexamine regulations and compliance with regards to these devices as testing uses a large adult male (SAM) . Dr. Fernandez also advises precautions proposed by the American Academy of Pediatrics, that young children should not use cell phones. This study indicated virtual reality type devices should also not be used by children. He urges wired connections to reduce children’s  needless exposure to non-ionizing radiation. More research is critically needed in this area as widespread commercial use has already begun.

Absorption of wireless radiation in the child versus adult brain and eye from cell phone conversation or virtual reality (2018) Fernandez et al. 

Fernandez Screen Shot 2018-10-29 at 11.41.15 PM

Reprinted with permission.


Published Studies Physiologic Eye Effects

Newest Articles

Blue Light

Retinal Damage, Melatonin, Skin

Computer Vision Syndrome

  • Prevalence of dry eye in video display terminal users: a cross-sectional Caucasian study in Italy. (2018). Rossi GCM et al. Int. Ophthalmol. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29881936
  • Eyesight quality and Computer Vision Syndrome.(2017) Bogdanici CM et al. Rom J Ophthalmic. 2017 Apr-Jun;61(2):112-116. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29450383
  • Visual Fatigue Induced by Viewing a Tablet Computer with a High-resolution Display. Kim DJ.  Korean J Ophthalmic. 2017 Oct;31(5):388-393. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28914003
  • Computer vision syndrome prevalence, knowledge and associated factors among Saudi Arabia University Students: Is it a serious problem? (2017)  Al Rashid SH. Int J Health Sci (Qassim) 2017 Nov-Dec;11(5):17-19. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29114189
  • Exploring the Predisposition of the Asian Eye to Development of Dry Eye. (2016)  Craig JP et al.  Ocul Surf. 2016 Jul;14(3):385-92.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27143647
  • Computer vision syndrome and associated factors among medical and engineering students in chennai. (2014). Logaraj M. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2014 Mar;4(2):179-85.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24761234
  • [Meibomian gland disfunction in computer vision syndrome]. (2010)  Pimenidi MK. Vests Oftalmol. 2010 Nov-Dec;126(6):49-52.
  • Computer Vision Syndrome: A Review. (2005) Bleh C et al.  Survey of Ophthalmology. May June 2005. Volume 50, Issue 3, Pages 253–262. https://www.surveyophthalmol.com/article/s0039-6257(05)00009-3/abstract https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29450383
  • Mobile phone related-hazards and subjective hearing and vision symptoms in the Saudi population. (2005) Meo SA and Al-Dress AM.  Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2005;18(1):537. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16052891

Dry Eye Syndrome


Myopia and Screen Time

Skin Effects of Digital Screen Use

  • Evaluation of Wi-Fi Radiation Effects on Antibiotic Susceptibility, Metabolic Activity and Biofilm Formation by Escherichia Coli0157H7,Staphylococcus Aureus and Staphylococcus Epidermis. (2019)  Said-Salman IH et al. J Biomed Phys Eng. 2019,Oct; 9(5): 579–586. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6820025/
  • Can Light Emitted from Smartphone Screens and Taking Selfies Cause Premature Aging and Wrinkles? (2018)  Arjmandi N et al. J Biomed Phys Eng. 2018 Dec 1;8(4):447-452. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30568934
  • Electronic Device Generated Light Increases Reactive Oxygen Species in Human Fibroblasts. (2018) Austin E et al. Lasers Sure Med. 2018 Feb 5. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29399830/
  • Resveratrol Prevents High Fluence Red Light-Emitting Diode Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Photoinhibition of Human Skin Fibroblast Migration. (2015) Mamalis A et al.PLoS One. 2015 Oct 21;10(10):e0140628. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26488596/

Vision and Non-ionizing Radiofrequency Radiation (RFR) Exposure

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