DNA and RNA Effects

Scientific Literature

Updated 9/13/21

Mechanisms of radiofrequency radiation on DNA and RNA: Partial list

DNA and RNA are basic macromolecules of all living organisms that carry our individual genetic codes from one generation to the next. These fragile chains of nucleic acids not only direct our  inheritance, they also direct fetal development, metabolism, protein synthesis, immune system functioning, nervous system functioning and cancer protection.  DNA and RNA can be damaged by a number of toxic exposures leading to a broad range of serious diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disease and birth defects. We have for decades understood the mechanisms of ionizing radiation from X-Rays, nuclear power plants and atomic bombs, however, we are just now understanding the adverse effects of exposure to non-ionizing radiation from cell towers and wireless devices which can alter DNA and RNA by various mechanisms including creation of reactive oxygen species, similar to other toxins exposures (pesticides and heavy metals).

This review of  DNA repair mechanisms in dividing and non-dividing cells highlights the different pathways of injury to DNA resulting in genomic instability and then to human disease.

The National Toxicology Report (2019)  found that 2 common cell phone modulations caused DNA Damage. They state in the report, “Results of the comet assay showed significant increases in DNA damage in the frontal cortex of male mice (both modulations), leukocytes of female mice (CDMA only), and hippocampus of male rats (CDMA only). Increases in DNA damage judged to be equivocal were observed in several other tissues of rats and mice. 

See also:


  1. Human‐made electromagnetic fields: Ion forced‐oscillation and voltage‐gated ion channel dysfunction, oxidative stress and DNA damage (Review).(2021)  Pangopolous DJ, et al.  International Journal of Oncology. August 23, 2021.    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34617575/
  2. Epigenetic dysregulation in various types of cells exposed to extremely low-frequency magnetic field. Cell Tissue Research. (2021) Giorgi G and Del Re B.  2021 Jul 21. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34287715/
  3. Genetic effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields. Henry Lai. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. Published online: 04 Feb 2021. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15368378.2021.1881866
  4. Non-ionizing radiation, part 2: radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. WHO IARC.  Volume 102. 2011. https://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol102/mono102.pdf
  5. The Reflex Project. Risk Evaluation of Potential Environmental Hazards from Low Energy Electromagnetic Field Exposure Using Sensitive in vitro Methods. http://www.verum-foundation.com/projects/reflex.html

Published Papers

BIOLOGIC EFFECTS: DNA, RNA and Gene Expression

BIOLOGIC EFFECTS: DNA Epigenetic (general and RF EMR related)

Related Articles on DNA Damage and Repair Mechanisms

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