5G “Mobile” Communications

Updated 2/11/23

Please Scroll Down to view summaries (Health and Safety, Environmental Effects, Privacy and Security, Climate Change, Weather Forecasts, Property Values, Insurance Liability, International Agreements Violated, Non Lethal Weapon use) as well as other links, resources and older headlines

A Real Need for Speed or a Predictable Dilemma?

The telecommunications industry is actively promoting and marketing 5G (or 5th Generation) Technology and the Internet of Things with glossy ads and reassuring  television commercials. They promise that 5G will bring enhanced communications, jobs, and an economic boost to our cities and our nation.  Researchers, physicists,  biologists and physicians argue, however, that there are health, safety, environmental, privacy, security and energy use issues that have not been addressed before the widespread rollout. These scientists predict a biological, environmental as well as societal disruption resulting from this technology that will be difficult or impossible to reverse. In addition, widespread state and federal legislation to streamline deployment of 5G by removing local control on placement and fees cities can charge, will actually cause economic decline in cities with lost revenue and increased liability for harm from cell antenna, as this is an exemption wireless providers have in their insurance policies. The far-reaching Telecommunications  Act of 1996 helps businesses roll out wireless and simultaneously dismisses health or environmental concerns.  Despite the lack of safety testing and real concerns about functionality, the telecom industry reports 5G will be worldwide by 2020. Europe is heavily investing in this technology in what is called a public private partnership, unfortunately with little little pubic consideration. 5G Technology will employ high, mid and low band frequencies as explained by Science Guy Bill Nye in “5 Facts About 5G”.

See Also HEADLINES below for updates

5G-A Manufactured Need

Industry fails to mention what a 2020 report,  5G: State of Play in Europe, USA and Asia. In Depth Analysis, indicates is a manufactured need for 5G “ As 5G is driven by the telecoms supply industry, and its long tail of component manufacturers, a major campaign is under way to convince governments that the economy and jobs will be strongly stimulated by 5G deployment.” 

Massive Energy Use Tilts Climate Change Efforts

The issue of increased energy use of wireless technology has been brewing for over 10 years but has recently become a hot news topic as the urgency of climate change mitigation is being realized. Detailed academic reports such as The Overlooked Environmental Footprint of increasing Internet Use”, by experts at MIT, Yale and Ourdue, show that the increasing digital energy consumption we are experiencing is not sustainable. Fiberoptic and wired technologies are significantly more climate friendly, more private and more secure from hacking. A report, Re-Inventing Wires: The Future of Landlines and Networks explains access, reliability, privacy, health and environmental benefits of maintaining and expanding our current sophisticated wired communications system.  EHTrust has compiled a large amount of literature on this subject. Please scroll below for more information as well.  The environmental footprint of 5G is examined in a 2021 article “How Green is 5G?”  including the question of greater efficiency vs more use, battery drain, mining of minerals, ewaste, and satellite soot.

“The reasons behind the strong growth in digital energy consumption are multiple but we can, on the basis of an initial analysis, identify 4 main sources: the smartphone phenomenon; the multiplication of the peripherals of daily life (or “connected living”);the rise of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT); the explosion of data traffic.”LEAN ICT: TOWARDS DIGITAL SOBRIETY”:  NEW REPORT ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF ICT” February 2019

Scroll past headlines to view summaries on the range of 5G impacts

See Also

* 5G Telecommunications Science

* Reinventing Wires: The Future of Landlines and Networks

* Biologic and Cellular  Mechanisms of Harm from Wireless Radiation

* Military and Government Reports

*  Wildlife and Biodiversity: A Disappearing Act by Cell Towers on Land and in Space.


Manufacturing Demand: Industry Questions the “Race to 5G”

The race to 5G  deployment is now being questioned by industry experts, as it is complex, will cost more (over $500 billion), require much more infrastructure, is driven by supply not demand, and requires substantial buy-in. They state in their report, 5G Deployment: State of Play in Europe, USA and Asia 2019,

As 5G is driven by the telecoms supply industry, and its long tail of component manufacturers, a major campaign is under way to convince governments that the economy and jobs will be strongly stimulated by 5G deployment. However, we are yet to see significant “demand-pull” that could assure sales. These campaign efforts are also aimed at the MNOs but they have limited capacity to invest in the new technology and infrastructure as their returns from investment in 3G and 4G are still being recouped.”

Here is a thorough discussion from the telecom industry, Preparing for 5G: Evolution of RF Compliance Standards and Regulations for Mobile Devices.

Dr. Ronald Kostoff, of the Georgia Institute of Technology, has a new 2019 thorough summary of the research on this broad and complex topic  here – 2019-Kostoff-Adverse-Effects-of-RF-EMR-Exposures From 5G and Other 

Threats from 5G: 

  • Health
  • Environment
  • Safety
  • Privacy
  • Security
  • Climate change with increased energy use
  • Weather forecast interference
  • Ground-based astronomy interference
  • E-Waste
  • Conflict minerals used in technology
  • Lower property values
  • Liability
  • Violation of UN Convention and Human Rights
  • Non-Lethal Weapon Use – Active Denial System
  • It Is An Experiment
  • Communications System Interference and Dysfunction

5G “Mobile” Technology Requires an Army of “Fixed” Antennas

Far from being mobile, this technology will depend on thousands of  fixed “small cell” antennae throughout cities and residential neighborhoods, about 300 meters (~1000 feet) apart. In order to function, these short wavelength radiofrquencies (6-100 Gigahertz or GHz) will be pulsing at billions of times a second (1GHz=1 Billion cycles /sec) and will be continuously emitting radiation 24 hours a day.  In a addition, a newer technology which is used in the military for early warning missile radar systems, PAVE PAWS, is incorporated into these systems called phased arrays, where by more powerful built in “beam steering” arrays scan back and forth from tower to device and from device to tower for easier connection with an individual’s movement, similar to the missile systems. Phased arrays are also used in AM and FM radio broadcast stations and proposed for automotive radar sensing.  The cell phones will operate with higher power and shielding for electrical interference but no apparent shielding for the user.  There has been no premarket testing for health or environmental harm. Cities across the globe are now conducting trials for 5G and turning 5G on, before full commercial rollout expected in 2020. A Smart Cities Council Smart Cities Council is promoting this technology worldwide.  Plug  and Play Technologies, which “brings together the best startups and the worlds largest corporations”, also promotes this untested but innovative technology. Video- The Connected Era

Where is 5G now?

As of August 2020 Tech Republic lists the cities where 5G is operating at  How to Find Out if Your city Has 5G right Now.

Privacy Vulnerabilities of 5G and Self Driving Cars: A Major Issue

Privacy has been identified as another disabling aspect of 5G. Purdue University published their findings of 11 vulnerabilities in 5G. Hackers continuously work to figure out how to invade devices and control them. 5G is soon to be widely adopted by industry but flaws in the data network systems still exist and can be exploited. Some are related to tracking. The lead researcher, Syed Rafiul Hussain, stated, “The thing I worry about most is that attackers could know the location of a user. 5G tried to solve this, but there are many vulnerabilities that expose location information, so fixing one is not enough.”

13 Million 5G Cell Towers Projected by the Department of Defense

A study conducted by Google on 5G deployment for the Department of Defense noted, “using a database of utility poles in the United States, the study indicated that it would require approximately 13 million pole-mounted 28-GHz base stations and $400B dollars in capex to deliver 100 Mbps edge rate at 28 GHz to 72% of the U.S. population.” (pg 9) The Department of Defense report revealed there was much broader area coverage with 4G system with lower risk of interruption.



5G in Space: 50,000 Satellites

The Spectrum of 5G will be launched not only on local telephone poles but also in space. Space X already has 12,000 satellites approved and is asking for 30,000 more Starlink  satellites. 60 Starlink satellites were launched in the lower orbit in May 2019.  There are currently 2,100 active satellites in the Earth’s orbit, along with a reported 23,000 objects, much of which is “space junk”. Astronomers have concerns that the addition of thousands of new satellites will interfere with telescope views.  There is also a problem with lost satellites, as more than a dozen Space X Falcon 9 became lost in space soon after a successful launch. NASA is recommending that 99% of new satellites be de-orbited within 5 to7 years, to prevent collisions in the crowded lower earth orbit. This does not even take into account how this additional RF radiation will affect the environment or humans.

5G in Space

5G impacts on the ionosphere are particularly concerning as their waveforms may cause unknown atmospheric perturbation in different layers. Plasma irregularities can occur in these layers.  “These ionization layers called sporadic E layers have significant effects on the dynamics and stability of the local plasma on magnetic flux lines that pass through them and produce a feedback to the neutral and plasma dynamics that is poorly described due to the lack of information about the spatial extent and dynamics of these layers.” (Heelis 2020) There are also other concerns including cybersecurity of electrical grids in New Space and unchecked surveillance.

Astronomers Say Goodbye to the Dark Sky View

Astronomy students who need to view the stars and planets, collecting data for their research are now having to throw it out after Elon Musk launched the first low orbiting satellites. They create lines and not dots in photos as they move through the sky, blocking  the once clear view of the stars, planets and galaxies in the Universe.  After tens of thousands more satellites (50,000) have been launched, one will look to the stars to see “mega- constellations” of satellites, instead of star constellations, that have lead ships across the ocean, and enabled long distance travel for indigenous peoples.  In a Nov 2019 article in Forbes,This Is How Elon Musk Can Fix The Damage His Starlink Satellites Are Causing To Astronomy”, author Ethan Siegel points out that this is an existential threat to the dark sky and ground-based astronomy. He notes, “In astronomy, the greatest resource of all is a dark, clear night sky: humanity’s window to the Universe. Traditionally, its enemies have been turbulent air, cloud cover, and artificial light pollution.” Now it is 5G satellites.  There has been no broad discussion, let alone any international regulation regarding this wondrous celestial resource, to prevent this from happening.

5G Space Appeal

A 5G Space Appeal has also been launched, arguing that there will be unprecedented global environmental change. The Space Appeal notes,  “If the telecommunications industry’s plans for 5G come to fruition, no person, no animal, no bird, no insect and no plant on Earth will be able to avoid exposure, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, to levels of RF radiation that are tens to hundreds of times greater than what exists today, without any possibility of escape anywhere on the planet.”

5G versus 4G

What is the Difference Between  5G and 4G Wireless Technology? 

5G (Fifth Generation) Technology is not to be confused with the 5 Gigahertz (5GHz) frequencies used in wireless devices.  Some devices state they are 5G, but many are meant to be 5GHz frequency of transmission. Some phones you can purchase are now 5G capable and use 5G cell towers, but 5G towers are not everywhere at this time.  Here is a list of 5G towers in the U.S. by Tech Republic as of August 2020.   New 5G technology was initially supposed to use only tiny millimeter wavelengths with much higher frequencies (10-300GHZ), but as described below it will use RF spectrum in 3 bands- low, mid and high (millimeter waves). 5G is being rolled out in stages in cities and countries as they get permits which have been fast tracked by telecom. There is now more to 5G than you see in slick Ads….  See also What’s the Difference Between 5G and 5GHz Wi-Fi?.

Confusion mounts as most “small cells” placed in cities will have 4G technology before 5G, although people are calling them 5G small cell towers. As explained below, telecom companies are now using longer wavelengths 600 and 700 MHz (older cell phone frequencies)- or low band; as well as 2.5to 5 GHz (standard Wi Fi frequencies)- or mid-band; as well as new small millimeter wavelengths 6GHz to 100GHz  scientists have been especially concerned about-so called high-band; depending on the carrier. Thus 5G Spectrum, when fully implemented, will consist of a broad mix of frequencies that those who live or work near towers will be continuously exposed to. When talking about 5G one needs to be specific about which bands will be used. Will it be 5G millimeter high band technology or 5G low band or 5G mid band technology placed on a utility pole near you…..?

The Truth About 5G

The video, “The Truth About T-Mobile 5G”, explains that different carriers have vastly different spectrum use, with the high frequency bands, touted for lightening fast speeds, blocked by trees and buildings making connections unstable, at least for the time being as cell towers are spaced farther apart. The longer bands travel through buildings and give more stable coverage.  Unfortunately, the longer bands also travel though all living organisms (humans, pets, wildlife, insects, bacteria, fungi, plants) altering biological processes.  Note that the telecom industry admits that many of these so-called 5G  “small cells” are the same as those mounted on high poles with almost the same power, only much closer to people.

5G is a Moving Target of Frequencies

For years, telecom companies have promoted 5G as a technology that would use novel tiny millimeter waves that do not penetrate the skin. Indeed, they are using millimeter wavelengths, however, as noted above, companies such as Verizon, T Mobile and AT&T will add these to a suite of lower-band (600-700MHz) and mid-band (sub-6GHz) frequencies for their nationwide rollout. These lower frequency wavelengths are in a similar section of the current spectrum we use now in 2G, 3G and 4G (900MHz, 1800MHz, 2.5GHz or 5 GHz wavelengths) and researched in the literature, showing biologic harm. See chart below. Each telecom company has purchased different portions of  “The Spectrum” through auctions from the FCC, and it appears they will use their own specific longer wavelength frequencies, in addition to higher frequency wavelengths. According to an article dated May 28, 2019, In Nationwide 5G, It Will Be AT&T’s 700MHz vs. T-Mobile’s 600MHzdiscussing 5G industry strategies, T Mobile will use 600MHz to 700MHz and AT&T will use 700MHz. Sprint says it will use their own 2.5GHz for the 5G rollout.

New 5G millimeter technology is different than prior 2G, 3G or 4G technology in the following ways:

  • Frequencies: *4G uses several different frequencies from 750MHz to about 2,400-5,000 MHz(2.4 GHz to 5 GHz- typical Wi Fi and cell phone) – *5G high band (proposed 5th generation) uses 10GHz to 300GHz,  but lower frequencies will also be used and the frequencies and speed will vary with each carrier i.e. 600 MHz Low band will be used by  T Mobile  Sprint will use 2.5GHz (standard Wi Fi frequency), called mid band, which will penetrate walls. PC Magazine on April 16, 2019 notes,  “The actual 5G radio system, known as 5G-NR, isn’t compatible with 4G. But all 5G devices in the US, to start, will need 4G because they’ll lean on it to make initial connections before trading up to 5G where it’s available. That’s technically known as a “non standalone,” or NSA, network. https://www.pcmag.com/article/345387/what-is-5g
  • Wavelengths: *4G electromagnetic wavelengths are inches to feet long – *5G frequencies are in centimeters to millimeters, but again lower frequencies will also be used, creating a mix of frequencies and therefore wavelengths.
  • Depth of Skin and Body Absorption: *4G microwave radiation (2.4GHz and 5 GHz) passes through bodies and the energy is absorbed by anything that contains water (can’t cook dry rice in a microwave oven), while *5G  high band(5th Generation) penetrates only the outer layers of the skin in humans. Again the mix of frequencies in cell towers and cell phones will have a mix of skin and body penetration, thus variable biologic effects
  • Distance Radiation Travels: *4G can travel dozens of miles in a line of sight and if poles are placed high. In experiments *5G high band can travel a few miles but is easily blocked by objects, trees and plants thus poles are planned for every 300 feet in “Smart Cities”..
  • Mechanisms of Harm: *4G and low band 5G (600MHz) emissions can cause oxidation of tissues (93 of 100 studies), *5G millimeter wavelengths can have their effect through heat (tissue destruction), through a resonance effect of increased vibration in an object the size of the wavelengths, and at low power levels through signaling of skin structures that can affect metabolism, the nervous system, the endocrine system, the reproductive system (Declassified Military studies)
  • Amount of Testing Done: *4G technology has been tested by the military and by international scientists with an abundance of studies showing broad harm to animals, humans, plants, insects and bacteria. *5G high band technology has been studied by some in the military showing broad harm and some newer studies are showing damage to insects, tissue burns and overheating with streaming of data, but there has been no safety testing of 5G before it is rolled out.

Size of Wavelengths with Varying Frequencies

In general the higher the frequency the sorter the wavelength. One conversion chart is here that shows what different frequencies/wavelengths will be used by 3G, 4G and 5G:

  • 5G: 600 MHz = cm microwaves of 50cm 20 inches   (“MHz” = Megahertz)
  • 4G/5G: 700 MHz = cm microwaves of ~43cm ≈ 17 inches  (“cm” = centimeter)
  • 3G/4G/: 800 MHz = cm microwaves of 37.5cm ≈ 15 inches
  • 3G/4G: 900 MHz = cm microwaves of ~33.3cm ≈ 13 inches
  • 3G/4G: 1800 MHz = cm microwaves of ~16.7cm 6.6 inches
  • 3G/4G: 2100 MHz = cm microwaves of ~14.3cm ≈ 5.6 inches
  • Wi-Fi: 2450 MHz = cm microwaves of ~12cm 5 inches
  • 5G: 3100 MHz to 3550 MHz = ~9.7 to ~8.5cm ≈ 3.8 to 3.3 inches
  • 5G: 3550 MHz to 3700 MHz = ~8.5cm to ~8.1cm 3.3 to 3.2 inches
  • 5G: 3700 MHz to 4200 MHz = ~8.1cm to ~7cm 3.2 to 2.8 inches
  • 5G: 4200 to 4900 MHz = ~7cm to ~6cm 2.8 to 2.4 inches
  • Wi-Fi: 5800 MHz = ~5cm microwaves of ~2 inches          (“mm” = millimeter)
  • 5G: 24,250 to 24,450 MHz = mm microwaves of ~12mm 0.5 inch
  • 5G: 25,050 to 25,250 MHz = mm microwaves of ~12mm 0.5 inch
  • 5G: 25,250 to 27,500 MHz = mm microwaves of ~11mm 0.4 inch
  • 5G: 27,500 to 29,500 MHz = mm microwaves of ~10mm 0.4 inch
  • 5G: 31,800 to 33,400 MHz = mm microwaves of ~9mm ≈ 0.4 inch
  • 5G: 37,000 to 40,000 MHz = mm microwaves of ~8mm ≈ 0.3 inch
  • 5G: 42,000 to 42,500 MHz = mm microwaves of ~7mm ≈ 0.3 inch
  • 5G: 64,000 to 71,000 MHz = mm microwaves of ~5mm ≈ 0.2 inch
  • 5G: 71,000 to 76,000 MHz = mm microwaves of ~4mm ≈ 0.2 inch
  • 5G: 81,000 to 86,000 MHz = mm microwaves of ~3.6mm 0.1 inch

NOTE: The “Small Cell” Antenna Are the Same Antennas as on the Macro Towers  

At a Sonoma Planning Commission meeting September 12, 2019, Mr. Lee Afflerbach, a consultant from Columbia Telecommunications Corporation explained in this video at time 3:10:24,  “To get around the capacity issue — it’s because so many people are [wirelessly] streaming video and other services like that, they [Verizon] have to have multiple sources for this. That’s why we have the smaller cells because each [small] cell is capable of almost putting out the same energy as one macro cell.” Another commissioner asked the question below. The answer at time 3:13:22 is below.

Q:  “Is the higher frequency 4G always deployed by small cell or is it deployed by typical macro tower?”

A: Mr. Afflerbach answered, “Typically the older Macro cells are being reconfigured to add the new spectrum and are being filled in with this technology…one of the things the industry is doing is beefing up 4G…I have reviewed, my staff has probably reviewed several hundred of these small cells the last year, year and a half, and they are all 4G equivalent. The radios that they are using are the exact same radios that are up on the macro towers. It’s not a different technology…the same boxes as on macro towers. I see them all the time.”

The small cell towers are not a different technology, or for regular cell phone service, but for streaming videos, and at the same power as regular macro towers but much closer proximity to people. However, instead of 100 feet in the air on a macro tower, these”small cells” can be just several feet from a bedroom window. 5G will later be added to this mix of radiation.

Health and Safety


The 2018 European Commission Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks (SCHEER) Lists 5G Electromagnetic Radiation 

SCHEER regularly updates emerging risks to public and environmental health. In their 2018 European Commission Statement on Emerging Health and Environmental Issues lists e cigarettes, perflourinated compounds, plastics, nanoparticles and also includes virtual reality and electromagnetic radiation, especially 5G technologies.   They state “The lack of clear evidence to inform the development of exposure guidelines to 5G technology leaves open the possibility of unintended biological consequences.” https://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/scheer_en  or SCHEER Report Emerging Concerns 2018-

European Parliamentary Research Briefing on 5G and Human Health: More Questions than Answers 

The European Parliament released a short report on human health effects of wireless communications and 5G. They state that while the European Commission’s goal is to advance the digitalization of the EU to increase its competitiveness there are serious concerns with 5G deployment. With regards to security of data the report notes, “the military, hospitals, the police and banks continue to use wired connections, at least for their most essential communications, mainly for security reasons. Wired networks generally offer a faster internet speed and are considered to be more secure.” Because of densification 5G will cost much more to deploy.  they highlight the many unanswered questions with regards to the true need and uses for 5G, who will pay for this expensive technology along with the critical unknowns about health and environmental effects.

Effects of 5G Wireless Communications on Human Health. European Parliamentary Research Service Briefing.  March 2020, or Here

New Danish Legal Compendium of Health and Environmental Effects of 5G

The Danish Institute for Public Health and the Council for Health-Safe Telecommunications has prepared legal document related to the broad harm from 5G as well as other wireless technologies. They state, “The legal opinion is based on the rules of law in the European Convention on Human Rights, the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, the EU directive on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora, the EU directive on the conservation of wild birds, on the precautionary principle as well as on the Bern- and Bonn-conventions on the protection of animals and plants.”

The 2019 Legal Compendium Document can be found and downloaded here 5G Danish legal opinion Jensen 2019. PDF 

The Critical Question of 5G Safety: Senator Blumenthal Blasts FCC

With the forced rollout  of 5G and small cells by the FCC  more communities are becoming aware of the lack of scientific data on the safety of 5G. At a Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee Hearing Feb 6, 2019, “Winning the Race to 5G and the Next Era of Technology Innovation in the United States,  Connecticut Senator Blumenthal inquired about health and safety of 5G.

He stated, “I believe that Americans deserve to know what the health effects are. Not to prejudge what scientific studies may show. They deserve also a commitment to do the research on outstanding questions….How much money has the industry committed to support independent research?…has any been completed… on the biological effects of this new technology?”  Industry representatives replied,  There are no industry backed studies to my knowledge right now.”  Senator Blumenthal replied, “ so, we are flying blind here on health and safety”.  There was no mention of public safety or environmental concerns aside from that brought up by Senator Blumenthal.  The lengthy but enlightening full video of the Senate Commerce Committee meeting is here.


US Senator Blumenthal Raises Concerns on 5G Wireless Technology Health Risks at Senate Hearing

Congresswomen Eshoo and Speier Introduce HR 530 to Block FCC Cell Tower Preemption

There are now 49 co-sponsors to Representative Anna Eshoo’s  recently introduced HR 530 to reverse the FCC order to essentially force communities to permit “small cells” throughout their cities and neighborhoods. Representative Eshoo stated the FCC had failed to listen to reasonable input from communities across the country, cowered to industry interests, and failed to put the public interests first.’” In a January 15, 2019 press statement Eshoo added,  “Having served in local government for a decade on the San Mateo County Board of Supervisors, I understand and respect the important role that state and local governments play in protecting the welfare of their residents,”   Cities are in chaos trying to figure out how to maintain some control overt this process.See Congresswomen Speier Introduce HR530 to Block FCC Tower Preemption.

Senator Feinstein Introduces SB 2012 to Block FCC Order on Small Cells

‘‘Restoring Local Control Over Public Infrastructure Act of 2019’’

On June 27, 2019 Senator Dianne Feinstein introduced SB 2012, a senate companion bill to Congresswoman Anna Eshoo’s HR530, which would similarly repeal FCC rules that limit state and local government control over telecom infrastructure. The bill is cosponsored by Charles Schumer (N.Y.), Michael Bennet (Colo.), Kamala D. Harris (Calif.), Ron Wyden (Ore.), Ben Cardin (Md.) and Richard Blumenthal (Conn.). The bill is supported by the U.S. Conference of Mayors, National Association of Telecommunications Officers and Advisors, American Public Power Association, Communications Workers of America, National Association of Counties, League of California Cities and American Public Works Association. Feinstein press release.  Restoring Local Control Over Public Infrastructure Act of 2019’’

Senator Feinstein wrote and Op Ed in the Mercury News January 16, 2020 about the FCC overreach of authority on 5G antennas, Opinion: Cities should decide how and where 5G is deployedWe can’t ignore how potentially intrusive deployment of internet infrastructure will affect our cities. She highlighted, The new 5G network will need new antennas to work, adding to the network of antennas our current cell technology already uses. This means we’re well on our way to a dangerous situation in which cities are clogged with 5G antennas on public infrastructure, all with little input from cities themselves. Unless Congress repeals these new FCC rules, citizens and local governments – and potentially public safety – will get steamrolled by big wireless companies.”

Senator Patrick Colbeck Testifies Against 5G in Hearing

Senator Colbeck highlights that 5G will not benefit those in rural communities. He also notes that according the the Michigan State Constitution is the primary concern is not convenience with technology it is the health of our citizens.

The First Report of 5G Injury is in Switzerland July 2019

The first reported injury of 5G in a news report comes from Switzerland, where 5G has been launched in 102 locations.  The weekly French-language Swiss magazine L’Illustré  interviewed people living in Geneva after the 5G rollout with alarming details of illness. In their article, With 5G, We Feel Like Guinea Pigsposted July 18, 2019, they report neighbors met to discuss their many common symptoms and many unanswered questions. See also First Report of 5G Injury from Switzerland.

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Scientists and Physicians Call for a Moratorium on 5G

Scientists and physicians on the other hand have called for a moratorium on 5G with a  5G Appeal. They feel there is substantial evidence of adverse public health and environmental  effects, along with the uncontested fact that there is little research on health or environmental effects of 5G technology, although research indicates there area adverse effects on skin and eyes.  Similar to other toxins we are exposed to there is no premarket or post market testing.

The Science

Dr. Martin Pall has complied a remarkable compendium on 5G scientific information and highlights the lack of  consideration of robust research on biological effects of wireless technologies by  agencies responsible for the human and environmental health. The online book is here-  5G: Great risk for EU, U.S. and International Health! Compelling Evidence for Eight Distinct Types of Great Harm Caused by Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Exposures and the Mechanism that Causes Them 

Dr. Marko Markov has written a comprehensive book,   Mobile Communications and Public Health,  which explains in clear language testing, EMF exposures, non-thermal beneficial and non-beneficial effects of Radiofrequency radiation, how cancer can be caused by electromagnetic fields, as well as psychophysiologic issues in students using cell phones.

See Also:  5G Telecommunications Science at Physicians for Safe Technology: https://mdsafetech.org/5g-telecommunications-science/ 

These sites offer links to hundreds of studies

BioInitiative Report

EMF-Portal: Research Data List

Oceania Radiofrequency Scientific Advisory Association

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety (SaferEMR)

Environmental Health Trust

 Devra Davis, PhD,  Speaks at UCSF on Health Effects of 5G

Acclaimed author of several influential books, including “Disconnect”, and founder of Environmental Health Trust, Devra Davis, PhD, provides a clear and engaging overview to physicians at UCSF,  about wireless technology and the coming onslaught of 5G technology.

5G Signals the Skin Through Sweat Glands 

Although 5G only penetrates the outer layers of skin, elements in the skin can act as a mini antennas radiating the RF frequencies deeper into the body and signaling the nervous, endocrine and immune system with broad adverse effects. There has been no pre market testing of 5G. It is assumed safe if it does not burn the skin. Like prior 2G, 3G and 4G networks, they are considered dangerous only if they heat the body. FCC guidelines are only based on heat. There has been no consideration for adverse  biological effects found at non thermal levels in a multitude of studies on 2G, 3G or 4G.  In addition, 5G technology has a disturbing data gap with regards to research on human or environmental safety, that is even admitted by industry. No studies done, no harm seen.

Project Censored

Project censored Logo Screen Shot 2019-11-05 at 7.09.42 AM

 New 5G Network Spurs Health Concerns

Project Censored, “The News That Didn’t Make the News”,  published a story on 5G, called New 5G Network Spurs Health Concerns on October 8, 2019. They point out “There is little or no substantive corporate media coverage of 5G health concerns. A May 2018 CBS News report observed that US wireless companies anticipate installing 300,000 new antennas, “roughly equal to the total number of cell towers built over the past three decades,” to support new 5G networks….Yet CBS’s coverage made no mention of the coalition of 52 grassroots organizations, Americans for Responsible Technology, that has called on the Federal Communications Commission to delay deployment of 5G infrastructure due to “emerging science linking exposure to RF microwave radiation with serious biological harm,”.

Dr. Moskowitz Interview On 5G Health Effects On BBC Radio 5 By Rhod Sharp On Up All Night. Here

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Joel Moskowitz,PhD photo official 2015

A live interview of Dr. Joel M. Moskowitz of the University of California, Berkeley about 5G health risks for BBC Radio 5’s “Up All Night” program. Interview conducted by Rhod Sharp. May 30, 2019.

 A 5G Wireless Future and Wireless Silent Spring

by Dr. Cindy Russell

Articles discussing the health and environmental effects of wireless technology by Dr. Cindy Russell and published in the Santa Clara County Medical Association Bulletin.

5G color articlecreen Shot 2018-07-11 at 6.25.21 AM5GWireless Future: Will it Give Us a Smart Nation or contribute to an Unhealthy One?  SCCMA Bulletin, June 4, 2017  The Black and White PDF of 5G Wireless Future with References is here 

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5 G wireless telecommunications expansion: Public health and environmental implications. Dr. Cindy Russell. Environmental Research. 2018 Aug;165:484-495. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29655646. 

or at https://ecfsapi.fcc.gov/file/10913927726988/5%20G%20wireless%20telecommunications%20expansion%3A%20Public%20health%20and%20environmental%20implications.pdf

Environmental Effects


Humans are deeply connected to and depend on the our fragile natural environment for food security, water purification, clean air, a stable climate as well as for relaxation. There are many well established threats to a sustainable environment, including pesticides, synthetic persistent manufactured toxins, consumption of fossil fuels, rising greenhouse gases and overconsumption. Another added risk to healthy ecosystems is the massive increase in wireless radiation on cell towers and in space. Not only will the accompanying increase in energy consumption contribute to climate change and indirectly harm species, there is direct injury and well.  Many scientific reviews discuss adverse biological affects (reproduction, behavior, DNA damage, biodiversity),  of wireless technology and cell towers on mammals, birds, insects, reptiles, fungi, bacteria, trees, plants and seeds. Injury is broad and mechanisms are varied, including oxidative damage, resonance effects as well as alteration of magnetoreceptors used for navigation with the earth’s magnetic field, by a multitude of species. Will we be creating a Wireless Silent Spring as more 4G and 5G cell towers are deployed?  See Also

Reviews on Harm to Wildlife

Physicians for Safe Technology has compiled a list of easily accessed reviews and research articles on a number of species. These are a few:

  • Levitt, Lai and Manville (2021) The most important peer reviewed article to date on environmental effects of wireless radiofrequency radiation was just published and deserves a full read. What do we know about wireless radiation effects on the natural environment? This comprehensive review by Levitt, Lai and Manville (2021) provides a wealth of scientific information, connecting the scientific dots of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) harm to flora and fauna. In a very readable text the authors answer many puzzling questions about this complex subject that combines biology, ecology, technology and physics. The authors warn, “It is time to recognize ambient EMF as a novel form of pollution and develop rules at regulatory agencies that designate air as ‘habitat’so EMF can be regulated like other pollutants.”Levitt, Lai, Manville. (2021) Effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields on flora and fauna, Part 1. Rising ambient EMF levels in the environment. Rev Environ Health. 2021 May 27. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34047144/Levitt, Lai, Manville (2021) Effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields on flora and fauna, Part 2 impacts: how species interact with natural and man-made EMF. Rev Environ Health. 2021 Jul 8. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34243228/
  • Balmori (2015)  notes in his latest review “Current evidence indicates that exposure at levels that are found in the environment (in urban areas and near base stations) may particularly alter the receptor organs to orient in the magnetic field of the earth. These results could have important implications for migratory birds and insects, especially in urban areas, but could also apply to birds and insects in natural and protected areas where there are powerful base station emitters of radio frequencies. Anthropogenic Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields as an Emerging Threat to Wildlife Orientation. Alfonso Balmori. Science of The Total Environment. 518-519:58-60 · July 2015. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273121908_Anthropogenic_Radiofrequency_Electromagnetic_Fields_as_an_Emerging_Threat_to_Wildlife_Orientation
  • The Cucurachi Review (2012) of 113 peer-reviewed publications revealed, “In about two thirds of the reviewed studies ecological effects of RF-EMF was reported at high as well as at low dosages. The very low dosages are compatible with real field situations, and could be found under environmental conditions.” A review of the ecological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Environment International. Cucurachi et al. 51C:116-140 · December 2012. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233974663_A_review_of_the_ecological_effects_of_radiofrequency_electromagnetic_fields_RF-EMF
  • Panagopoulos  (2013) explains in his review of experimental data, how living organisms are in harmony with terrestrial and magnetic fields, which effect their cellular processes and even circadian rhythms.  Interference of this delicate interaction with human wireless technology can adversely affect the health and well-being of ecosystems. MOBILE TELEPHONY RADIATION EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGANISMS. Dimitris J. Panagopoulos and Lukas H. Margaritas.Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, University of Athens, Greece.
  • Blake Levitt and Henry Lai (2010)  provide an articulate and thorough review of cell towers and the radiation they emit. This is a classic paper that clearly explains and defines terms used in the literature, providing a foundation of knowledge as well as a review of the literature.   Biological effects from exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell tower base stations and other antenna arrays.(2010) Page 374- Biological Effects at Low intensity)   Blake Levitt, Henry Lai. Environmental Reviews, 2010, 18(NA): 369-395. http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/full/10.1139/A10-018#.WYUlOHeZNo4

Wireless Silent Spring

An article by Dr.Cindy Russell, Wireless Silent Spring,  discusses the similarities of wireless technology and pesticides, found to be toxic to many species.

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_Wireless Silent Spring._Santa Clara County Medical Association(SCCMA) Bulletin. Oct 2, 2018

The Black and White Version of Wireless Silent Spring is here 

Privacy and Security

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Privacy and Security Threats: Disabling?

The World Economic Forum calls digital technology and the internet of things the Fourth Industrial Revolution, however, security experts warn, “this increased dependency on communications networks will also entail a greater capacity for disaster should they be compromised.”  A January 2019 Motherboard article, We Could Easily Stop Location Data Scandals, But We Cower to Lobbyists Instead, highlights the long history of data commerce businesses along with privacy violations to children and adults. The article notes that both the FCC and FTC can and should address this issue.

The Do Not Track Kids Act 2018

Senator Markey reintroduced the Do Not Track Kids Act of 2018, to allow parents to have essentially an eraser button to remove publicly available personal information from sites. The bill also protects children up to age 15 from having their data collected without their consent. Text of SB 2932, Do Not Track Kids Act.

The Terrifying Potential of the 5G Network

Privacy and security are growing concerns with data breaches, hacking and cyber espionage evident as real threats by experts, eloquently reviewed by Sue Halpern, in a recent New Yorker article-The Terrifying Potential of the 5G Network. Citizens are fighting back around the world.  In Toronto officials are facing opposition to the development of the first of it’s kind proposed  “Smart City “, to be built high tech from the ground up, due to serious concerns for widespread surveillance.

Surveillance Capitalism and 5G

The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: “We Thought We Were Searching Google, But Google Was Searching Us”

Author Shoshana Zuboff, professor emeritus at Harvard Business School,  discusses her new book, “The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power”.  She points out that capitalism has historically been based on labor as the key economic driver. Now the marketplace is mining data derived from our personal experiences. High tech firms such as Amazon, Facebook and Google then sell it to third parties without regard to our wellbeing. She argues that our democracy is at risk.  “We are told that if we have nothing to hide then we have nothing to fear. The fact is ,what they don’t tell us is and what we are forgetting is that if we have nothing to hide then we are nothing… Because everything about us that makes us our unique identities that gives us…our sense of freedom of will and action and right to our own futures…is our private realm and is intended to be private..and turns us into people who assert moral autonomy, an essential element of a democratic society.”  5G will greatly expand surveillance and privacy threats as our every move will be digitized. The Age of Surveillance Capitalism.

Toronto’s New Quayside “Smart City” Facing Fierce Opposition for Surveillance Capitalism 

Plans for fully integrated city to be built from the ground up is finding that citizens are not all happy with the secret undemocratic development process, full surveillance plans and commodification of citizens data. Toronto Open Smart Cities Forum is exposing the Canadian Government and Google partnership proposals as unethical in the limitless collection of data in exchange for free services.  Googles friendly name of “Sidewalk Labs” which is owned by Alphabet, Inc, is set to develop 12 acres of waterfront, southeast of downtown Toronto.  According to  the Intercept article, Googles “Smart City of Surveillance” Faces New Resistance in Toronto , Sidewalk Labs “kiosks have already been installed in New York and London. The kiosks — which include three cameras, 30 sensors, and Bluetooth beacons — aggregate anonymized data for advertising purposes in exchange for providing passersby with free Wi-Fi services.”

Privacy: San Francisco Bans Facial Recognition Software

The SF Board of Supervisors voted 8-to-1 to ban facial recognition software by police in May 2019, citing excessive surveillance. The  software will still be used at airports and ports of entry.  Civil liberty groups have expressed broad concerns with regards to abuse by government with the ability to follow someones every move.  A Federal bill, S 847, The Commercial Facial Recognition Privacy Act of 2019,  was introduced in March 2019 and would make it illegal to 1) share the facial recognition data with an unaffiliated third party without consent 2) use the facial recognition technology to discriminate against an end user  or 3) repurpose facial recognition data.

Security Threats to the IoT and Home Security Systems

A steep and steady rise in malicious software has alarmed homeowners, manufactures and insurance companies. Sophisticated cyber criminals have made an industry of hacking devices, and have moved from computers to smart phones to IoT,  which now includes “smart” city system, “smart” home security monitoring systems, driverless vehicles, drones and medical devices. Most commonly IoT botnets are used in these attacks, with Nokia reporting that these are found in 78% of malware detections. They warn, “Malware threats against IoT devices could get worse as consumer adoption of such devices accelerate in the years ahead as 5G capabilities advance.”

What happens when your parrot speaks to Alexa? They can order on Amazon and you are responsible. Parrot Purchases on Amazon. As annoying as this can be the threats are even greater for home security systems. In Smart Home Security Devices Most at Risk in IoT-Targeted Cyber Attacks,  published June 13, 2019, ““The target of attacks is no longer just enterprises, high profile hacks on home networks have positioned these at the forefront of cyber crime.

Email Hacking to ICloud Hacking. An article in Wired Magazine April 19, 2019 , MICROSOFT EMAIL HACK SHOWS THE LURKING DANGER OF CUSTOMER SUPPORT reveals that Microsoft support links may be hacked, and that information leads to more personal information. They note in the article, “Email accounts can be extremely valuable to criminals; people often use them to set up other accounts, meaning attackers can use the email account itself to reset passwords and compromise multiple services. Motherboard reported that the attackers did, in fact, use their access to break into iCloud accounts to disable iPhone activation locks.”

Climate Changer


Massive Energy Use To Power Digital Technology, 5G and IoT

5G technology will contribute to, not combat, climate change by increasing energy use throughout the lifecycle of its products. Climate experts agree we have 10 years to drastically reduce fossil fuel use and energy consumption.  According to computer magazine Network World article,  “The consumption of energy by consumer electronic information communications technology (CE-ICT) grows by about 7 percent per year. The data load on networks has grown at 22 percent per year, according to cisco, and cloud data centers are growing by about 15 percent, according to Telecompetitor ”  With 50 billion devices up and running by 2020, the energy consumption of IoT will outpace any conservation efforts by “Smart” devices.

The Cloud

In The Power of the Wireless Cloud”from the University of Melbourne Center for Energy Efficient communications, the authors point out that wireless systems use 15 to 23 times more energy than wired systems…. Up to 90% of this consumption is attributable to wireless access network technologies, data centres account for only 9%.”

Online Video Energy consumption

The Shift Project produced a comprehensive document, Climate Crisis: The Unsustainable Use of Online Video, The Practical Case for Digital Sobriety. July 2019.  The authors note that the intensive use of online video uses a large amount of energy. Currently digital technology uses 4% of energy, however, as the energy consumption increases 9% per year the total energy consumption is predicted to be 8% by 2025 (the same as auto emissions).

Wireless Networks Consume 10 times More Power Than Optical

A robust comparison of optical networks versus wireless systems, in a 2011 IEEE published study, Baliga et al revealed much higher energy consumption i wireless networks due to the waste of energy essentially spraying the data in all directions even if there is no end user. Passive Optical Networks (PON) are inherently much more efficient. In the era of climate change this should be a prime consideration for broadband access. The authors state, “Wireless technologies will continue to consume at least 10 times more power than wired technologies when providing comparable access rates and traffic volumes. PON will continue to be the most energy-efficient access technology…Passive optical networks and point-to-point optical networks are the most energy-efficient access solutions at high access rates.”

A 2013 study by Sikdar , A study of the environmental impact of wired and wireless local area network access., demonstrated a similar conclusion. They used a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method to evaluate the environmental impact of WiFi access points and Ethernet switches concluding, “During the manufacture stage, the energy consumption for the WiFi access point is about 80% higher than that of the Ethernet switch…During the usage stage, the energy consumption as well as CO2 emissions of the WiFi access point is about 37% more than that of the Ethernet switch.”..an Ethernet switch tends to consume lower energy than a corresponding WiFi access point. This is primarily because an Ethernet switch has a smaller number of functionalities compared to a WiFi access point. The larger number of functions supported by WiFi access points also implies that they require more components when they are manufactured.”

Energy Consumption in Wired and Wireless Access Networks. Baliga J et al. July 2011. IEEE Communications Magazine. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/224240247_Energy_Consumption_in_Wired_and_Wireless_Access_Networks

A study of the environmental impact of wired and wireless local area network access. Biplab Sikdar. IEEE. Feb 2013. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6490245

5G Base Stations Alone Will Consume 3 Times More Power

In 5G’s Waveform Is a Battery Vampire, in IEEE Spectrum News, the author notes, “A 5G base station is generally expected to consume roughly three times as much power as a 4G base station. And more 5G base stations are needed to cover the same area.”

A  Forbes 2017 article, Why Energy Is A Big And Rapidly Growing Problem For Data Centers, highlights that this problem is hunger for power to fuel AI, IOT data storage and transfer is big and getting bigger. The mandate to shift data to the cloud to save energy, he argues is “like trying to save the planet by turning off your lights, then going to your neighbor’s apartment and turning on theirs so you can read.” He ends with, “It’s either a breakthrough in our compute engines, or we need to get deadly serious about doubling the number of power plants on the planet.”

Smart Tech’s Carbon Footprint: Taking a Holistic View

The April 2020 issue of The Ecologist investigates not only the massive carbon footprint of the communications industry, which is predicted to be about 20% of all energy use in 2025, it also highlights the environmental consequences of mineral extraction of resources to build this increasing “dirty” industry.  The author also points out the effect of Elon Musk’s Space X programs satellites on the ozone layer. The article concludes:

“All this gives pause for environmental thought. It begins to seem harder to understand why so many in the Green movement embrace digital technologies with less critical evaluation than seems called for.

Have we have become too unquestioningly dependent on these devices? Is the sense of having a useful, exciting and entertaining tool in our hand blinding us to its environmental impact? Is the sense of control that it gives us in fact diminishing human agency and undermining the holism of ecological thinking?”  Smart tech’s carbon footprint. Matthew Barton. April 30, 2020. https://theecologist.org/2020/apr/30/smart-techs-carbon-footprint

5G: More Frequency Bands, More Power, More Energy Consumption

In a 2019 Vertiv Black and White paper, Telco Industry Hopes and Fears : FROM ENERGY COSTS TO EDGE COMPUTING TRANSFORMATION,  the authors examine not only the potential of 5G touted by business but also lay out some of the remaining questions that have not been addressed including

  • Energy impact of 5G
  • Service and segment focus and timing
  • Overall network, IT, and datacenter readiness

In a Hauwei report, 5G Power: Creating a green grid that slashes costs, emissions & energy use, the authors note, “Base stations with multiple frequencies will be a typical configuration in the 5G era. It’s predicted that the proportion of sites with more than five frequency bands will increase from 3 percent in 2016 to 45 percent by 2023. In a site with multiple frequencies, maximum power consumption for the whole mobile tower will exceed 10 kW. At 10 or more frequency bands, site power consumption surpasses 20 kW…In China, for example, total power consumption by telecoms networks exceeds 50 billion kWh. Once 5G networks are deployed, the power consumption of telecoms networks in China will exceed an estimated 100 billion kWh, generating annual carbon emissions of 27.2 billion kg.”  5G installations will affect grid capacity, battery capacity, cabinet heat dissipation, and power distribution . The answer for Hauwei is to use AI for voltage boosting,  peak shaving and more lithium batteries.

5G to Assist Bitcoin, Which Uses More Energy Than 159 Countries


 The rise in Bitcoin has caused a spike in energy use.  According to a CBS News report Bitcoin “mining uses more energy than 159 individual countries.” The Bitcoin Energy Consumption Index Chart reveals that a single Bitcoin transaction uses the same amount of energy to power 18 U.S. households in a day. Five hydroelectric dams along the Columbia River in Eastern Washington State are now used to power digital currencies instead of households. The trillions of transactions for Bitcoin require more servers that heat up, and thus require energy gobbling cooling systems to prevent meltdowns.  5G systems are expected to fuse with blockchain and other IoT systems with growing energy demands.  Amazon has been accused of abandoning its 100% renewable energy goals.

Articles on Climate Change and Tech

For a list of other articles and references on energy consumption and 5G go to: 

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Energy Consumption Of 5G, Wireless Systems And The Digital Ecosystem. https://ehtrust.org/science/reports-on-power-consumption-and-increasing-energy-use-of-wireless-systems-and-digital-ecosystem/

Weather Forecasts


Weather Forecasts Compromised

Global 5G Networks Threaten Weather Forecasts

Scientists from NASA and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have asked the FCC not to auction or use part of the 5G spectrum (24GHz) that is used by  Earth observing satellites gathering meteorologic data used for critical weather forecasting.  Attempts by these agencies to prevent the sale of these previously protected airwaves by the FCC were ignored, and the sale of that spectrum ended on April 17, 2018 for a price of $2 billion.  Scientists cautioned that predicting extreme weather events such as hurricanes, could be compromised and set weather forecasts back 40 years.

Senators Ron Wyden and Maria Cantwell were very direct in a May 13, 2019 letter to FCC Chairman Ajit Pai stating, “Don’t allow wireless companies to operate in the 24 GHz band until vital weather forecasting operations are protected…. allowing communications in the 24GHz band at the interference levels permitted by the FCC would substantially impact the accuracy of weather forecasts crucial to the Department of Defense (DOD), public safety officials, the commercial fishing industry, farmers and millions of Americans who depend on accurate forecasts of floods, hurricanes, winter storms, and tornadoes.”

Property Values


Property Values Lowered

A 2010 New York Times article, A Pushback Against Cell Towers, noted the concerns of people purchasing property near a cell tower due to health and aesthetic issues. An Attorney, Mr Campanelli stated, “If your home is near a cell antenna, the value of your property is going down at least 4 percent. Depending on the size of the tower and the proximity, it is going down 10 percent.”

Evidence of lower property values is found in articles below

OTARD Rule: 5G Cell Antenna on Rental Property Without Consent

The National Association of Realtors, the National Apartment Association, the Institute of Real Estate Management, the National Multifamily Housing Council,  along with several other groups sent a letter to the FCC  June 3, 2019, urging the FCC to refrain from extending the “OTARD” rule that permits the installation of wireless hubs or relay antennae on leased property without the consent of the property owner. The letter states,  “The real estate associations believe strongly the marketplace is working, and so we urge the Commission to avoid measures that could prove counterproductive, and thereby harm investment, constrain competition, and limit consumer access to broadband service. We are also concerned that inopportune regulation could raise the cost of developing multifamily housing and commercial real estate.”  Realtor Magazine covered the story June 24, 2019.  The Coalition noted that:

  • “The rule could allow residential or commercial tenants to install a 5G small cell or other wireless infrastructure on a balcony or within a leased space to boost individual coverage and also transmit a signal to other customers of the telecom provider.
  • The rule could allow a telecom carrier who already leases rooftop space from a property owner (for antennas or other equipment) to be able to attach a 5G small cell or other wireless infrastructure on that existing equipment without having to change their agreement with the property owner.”

Insurance Liability

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Insurance Industry: 5G is an Emerging High Risk Situation Along with Climate Change

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Wireless Radiofrequency Radiation is an Insurance Risk

Insurance companies typically do not insure harm from radiofrequency radiation (RFR), it is an exclusion in almost all policies. Special pollution insurance is required to cover this. The insurance industry keeps track of relevant emerging risk topics to make sound business decisions to reduce their exposure.  Swiss Re is the second largest reinsurance company in the world. In 2013, their Swiss Re Emerging Risk profile listed electromagnetic fields in the highest casualty risk due to “unforeseen consequences” beyond 10 years, similar to asbestos. This distinction is shared with endocrine disruptors and nanotechnology due to their long latency period.

2013- Swiss Re Sonar Insurance Risk Report. Emerging Risk Insights 2013.   https://www.stopumts.nl/pdf/Zwitserland%20Swiss%20Reinsuranse%202013.pdf

Insurers Brace for 5G Risks

2019 -5G is a Risk-  In a  2019 report , New Emerging Risk Insights by Swiss Re Insurance Company  the second largest reinsurance company in the world, 5G is listed as an emerging concern in the high risk category within 3 years.  Included in the high risk trends, are artificial intelligence and the existential threats of climate change. “The top five emerging risks in our SONAR 2019 report are digital technology’s clash with legacy hardware, potential threats from the spread of 5G mobile networks, increasingly limited fiscal and monetary flexibility by central banks, genetic testing’s implications on life insurers, and the impact of climate change on the life and health sector.” https://www.swissre.com/institute/research/sonar/sonar2019.html

Swiss Re Insurance in its articleOff the leash-5G,  highlights Cyber Security Risks as well. “Other concerns are focused on cyber exposures, which increase with the wider scope of 5G wireless attack surfaces. Traditionally IoT devices have poor security features. Moreover, hackers can also exploit 5G speed and volume, meaning that more data can be stolen much quicker… A large-scale breakthrough of autonomous cars and other IoT applications will mean that security features need to be enhanced at the same pace. Without that, interruption and subversion of the 5G platform could trigger catastrophic, cumulative damage. With a change to more automation facilitated by new technology like 5G, we might see a further shift from motor to more general and product liability insurance.”https://www.swissre.com/institute/research/sonar/sonar2019/SONAR2019-off-the-leash.html       

Insurers Brace for Emerging 5G Risks. Risk Management Magazine. Aug 1, 2019. https://www.rmmagazine.com/articles/article/2019/08/01/-Insurers-Brace-for-Emerging-5G-Risks-

Managing the Risks of 5G and New Technology. What the newest generation in wireless networking means for schools. By Christopher Mangano. New Jersey School Board Administration. March/April 2020.  https://www.njsba.org/news-publications/school-leader/march-april-2020-vol-50-no-5/managing-the-risks-of-5g-and-new-technology/

Precautionary Cell Phone Base Station Positioning Recommended to Reduce Insurance Liability

The liability concerns prompted J.M. Pearce to write a peer reviewed article in Environmental Research in 2020, “Limiting liability with positioning to minimize negative health effects of cellular phone towers”. He summarizes the current research on the negative human health effects from proximity to cellular phone base stations, current law, and recommends precautionary cell phone base station positioning. The author states, “that deployment of base stations should be kept as efficient as possible to minimize exposure of the public to RFR and should not be located less than 500 m from the population,” highlighting the need for lower exposures near schools and hospitals.  Limiting liability with positioning to minimize negative health effects of cellular phone towers. J.M. Peace. Environmental Research. 181(2020). http://www.gencourt.state.nh.us/statstudcomm/committees/1474/documents/Pearce%202020%20Limiting%20liability%20with%20positioning%20to%20minimize%20negative%20health%20effects%20cell%20phone%20towers.pdf

Environmental Health Trust has compiled a list of insurance companies who have RFR exclusions you can view 1) here or 2) here. Examples are

  • Verizon Pollution Exclusion- in the Total Mobile Protection Plan                                                                          B. EXCLUSIONS
    “This insurance does not apply to loss or damage identified in any of

    the following or directly or indirectly caused by or resulting from any

    of the following:  ” …    “16. Pollution
    The discharge, dispersal, seepage, migration or escape of

    pollutants. Pollutants means any solid, liquid, gaseous, or

    thermal irritant or contaminant including smoke, vapor, soot,

    fumes, acid, alkalis, chemicals, artificially produced electric

    fields, magnetic field, electromagnetic field, sound waves,

    microwaves, and all artificially produced ionizing or non-

    ionizing radiation and/or waste. Waste includes materials to be

    recycled, reconditioned or reclaimed.”
  • ELECTRONIC MAGNETIC FIELDS RISKS AND EXPOSURES AND POTENTIAL INSURANCE COVERAGE. Marsh Report. 2014. This Report discusses the different types of electromagnetic fields and devices that can create bodily harm as well as the loss of property values due to cell towers. They state, “Generally the EMF is regarded as a modification of space itself, enabling it to store and transmit energy.” They also note that insurance “coverage for a mobile operator or mobile phone manufacturer usually not available.”
  • Central Mutual Insurance Loss Prevention- Conference Discussion on Cell Towers- 2011.  Discusses 3rd party exposures, not cell phone companies who are not typically insured, but those who inadvertently work near cell tower.  He notes the increase number of towers on structures and increase strength of the power. Highlights cognitive injury. There is no comprehensive safety protocol for cell antenna on buildings.  . https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w_5truC-REs
  •  Electromagnetic Fields (Utilities) Liability Insurance. Complete Markets. https://completemarkets.com/Electromagnetic-Fields-Utilities-Liability-Insurance/Storefronts/ “Classified alongside chemicals, smoke, and asbestos as “pollutants” electromagnetic fields (EMF) poses a high risk to various persons such as users of electrical power, electrical power generating companies, power transmission companies, and large generators. Sources of possible EMF health risks include radio frequencies, extremely low frequencies, and static magnetic fields. In homes, EMF exposures come from electrical appliances. The public has targeted cell phone manufacturers and electric power lines as likely EMF targets. Electromagnetic Fields (Utilities) Liability Insurance is a way for prudent companies to minimize exposure to vexatious litigation and adverse publicity.”
  • The Risks of \Radiation: Radio frequency radiation can harm roofing workers. Richard Burnheimer and Scott Kaiser.  Professional Roofing Magazine  . October 2010. https://www.professionalroofing.net/Articles/The-risks-of-radiation–10-01-2010/1774

UN Conventions and International Agreements Violated by Deployment of 5G


Many of the UN conventions are designed to protect humanity. The Rollout of 5G appears to violate many of these as listed below.  This list of 11 violations is from Dr. Gabriel Cousens’ blog January 31, 2019 titled “5G – A Toxic Assault on the Planetary Web of Life”

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Non-Lethal Weapon Use

Active Denial Systems Using Millimeter Waves

This video from the History Channel demonstrates how Active Denial Systems with 95 GHz millimeter signals in the 5G range (6 GHz to 300GHz), can be used to stop protests and disable people in crowds. They note that beam forming radio frequency signals are used at higher power to create a painful heat effect. This beam forming technology is the same as in 5G phones and 5G cell tower equipment. 200 Killiwatts of energy is used to create an antenna sized beam into a crowd, which can be swept across a field with a joystick. The reach is about 7 football fields away.

The military notes there are no longer clear lines that define a battlefield or combat zone, thus they need a safe, long range, energy directed deterrent for military and peacekeeping operations that is non-lethal to non-combatants.  This technology using developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory, the Department of Defense, and the Department of Justice to provide a safer weapon. There is concern that this 5G beam forming capability could be weaponized and we will be kept in active denial.  Active Denial Technology Fact Sheet.

5G Revolution: The Massive Experiment

The 5G Mass Experiment: Big Promises, Unknown Risks

This 5G Mass Experiment video was developed by a group of investigative journalists called, Investigate Europe. They highlight the planned widespread commercialization of 5G wireless products for the Internet of Things and  has not adequately considered safety issues. There will be no opt out of this experiment.

Stop 5G


Citizens From Around the World Protest 5G

International 5G and cell tower protests

Video Testimony Against 5G in City Council Meetings

Stop 5G:  EU Cities Call for a Ban on 5G

Cities in Belgium, Switzerland, Germany , Italy  and Russiaare calling for bans on 5G due to health concerns and the need to raise their protective safety limits. In Belgium, a 5G Pilot project in Brussels was halted due to environmental and health concerns. The Environmental Minister Celine Fremault stated, “I cannot welcome such technology if the radiation standards, which must protect the citizen, are not respected, 5G or not…The people of Brussels are not guinea pigs whose health I can sell at a profit. We cannot leave anything to doubt.”

Florence City,  Italy put the brakes on 5G, citing the Precautionary Principle. The vote was 18  of 19 councilors present in favor of a ban in March 2019.

See also PST Blog  Stop 5G: May 15, 2019 Day of Action as EU Cities Call for 5G Ban

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Environmental Health Trust has an updated list of International Actions to Ban or Halt 5G  here.

The WHO Coverup That is Costing Us the Earth.

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Former WHO employee, Olga Sheean, offers another perspective and reviews the realities of industry influence with regards to wireless radiation and why we need to challenge this harmful and manipulative industry.  https://www.emfoff.com/cover-up/.  The PDF can be viewed here.

Olga Sheean delves further in her discussion of the deeper roots of the implementation of wireless technology, and how we have been historically and systematically  disconnected from nature. We have created boundaries to nature that have led to planetary violations of human and environmental health. What is Driving the Crisis?

Sierra Club California Conservation Committee Adopts Resolution to Oppose 5G

On Feb 9, 2019 the Sierra Club California Conservation Committee voted yes to adopt a resolution asking the National Sierra Club to take an oppose position to the deployment of 5G and small cell technology without local input and environmental review. The resolution explains that 5G still has no independent safety testing. It notes, “Sound regulatory policy regarding current and future telecommunications initiatives will require assessment of risks to human health, environmental health, public safety, privacy, security and social and environmental consequences. The FCC safety guidelines are 30 years old and presently do NOT take into account continuous exposures to low levels of microwave and millimeter wave exposure 24 hours a day, 7 days a week…[this] would allow Sierra Club members to take part in efforts to get the FCC to undertake necessary environmental review on the potential hazards of 5G deployment, and to support local authorities in their efforts to develop regulatory, legislative, and other local controls.” Sierra Club Resolution here Sierra Club California 5G Resolution adopted 02-09-2019

 5G Radiation can travel up to 3,000 feet

The telecommunications industry is lobbying for cell tower placement every 250 to 300 feet stating the 5G frequencies are easily blocked and cannot transmit beyond that. Verizon field engineers however indicate in this video that the cell tower radiation can travel over 3,000 feet. This is consistent with findings by McCarthy and Rappaport. In their study published in IEEE, researchers found that 5G frequencies traveled up to 10Km on a clear day without obstruction.

See also:

Headlines 5G

Verizon  Ad on 5G

This ad by Verizon claims that 5G will be necessary and revolutionary however in a Motherboard article,  Christian Dameff, an ER doctor and cyber security researcher at the University of California, San Diego, noted that hospitals rely on local Wi-Fi networks or ethernet connections which deliver data at similar speeds with low latency and 5G  would not be necessary. The ad continues to state there is no harm from wireless radiation as it is non ionizing. This ignores the huge body of science that shows harm from low level chronic radiation and the unique mechanism of harm from 5G signals.

Unique 5G Mechanism of Harm- Brillouin’s Precursors

5G millimeter wavelengths have more complex penetration characteristics and interactions with biological systems. These have never been found in nature. 5G uses a phased array with multiple antennas rapidly layering pulses one on top of the other and not allowing any recovery. Beam steering technology is also used and allows for focused narrow beams that are higher power, travel longer distances and penetrate through buildings.

5G utilizes tiny millimeter waves that have been reported to only penetrate the outer layers of skin. On the surface this seems safer than longer wavelengths that pass through our bodies, however, our entire nervous system communicates via the skin.  The nervous system communicates with the immune system, the endocrine system and the reproductive system in a complex array. Studies demonstrate that when millimeter wave energy rapidly enters the skin, a wave front can be created that does not dissipate but propagates from cell to cell. Bursts of energy produce what are known as Sommerfield and Brillouin’s precursors that can cause non-linear perturbations in living systems. 5G broadband produces more of these than 5G alone.

A body of older research confirms broad injury from exposure to millimeter wavelengths. Declassified Russian research from Zalyubovskayaet al in 1977 showed that exposure to low level millimeter wavelengths caused broad structural alterations in skin and internal organs. They concluded that millimeter wavelengths were highly biologically active and had an unfavorable effect on the organism. Pakhomov(1998) reviewed the literature and found similar systemic effects.

Insect Armageddon

5G Licensed to Kill: The Insect Inspector Discusses the Insect Apocalypse

As scientists are working to explain the insect apocalypse , this video highlights one common environmental toxin that is known to kill insects, that is 5G as well as 3G and 4G radiation. He points out that “the 30-year radiation from millions of cellular phone masts is the single factor present in every region of insect decline.” Science backs this observation up. Wireless radiation may not be the only factor in this “insect Armageddon” but it may be the critical one. Pesticides can be avoided and habitat can be restored, however, once cell phone masts are placed they are rarely removed and the continuous waves of radiation just intensify to cover broader areas of land with more and more towers. The disappearance of birds and bees points  to wireless technology as the yet unrecognized factor hastening this decline. 5G will be like 3G and 4G on steroids as these smaller millimeter wavelengths are the size of insects and the resonance effect of these continuous waves will set up additive vibrations that destroy the insect and essentially cook it.  Microwave radiation is known to kill insects and is already being used for insect control in stored grains.

A 2009 study  by Ponomaryova  et al  revealed that frequencies that are similar to those used in cell phones and Wi-Fi routers destroy weevils and fungi. They stated, “The RF radiation of granary weevil… reaches 100% insect mortality at major exposure times for the frequencies 900 and 2,450 MHz.”  This is within minutes.

Sacramento Leads the Way with 6 Antennas Already Installed and San Jose Smart City Initiative  Close Behind

Fiberoptic and Wires: A Safer, Faster, More Private Alternative

Reports indicate that fiberoptic or cable delivery of broadband is 10 times faster than wireless and offers added benefits of privacy, security, significantly lower energy use (mitigates climate change) as well as safety for people and the environment. Other cities such as Chattanooga Tennessee have developed a fiberoptic broadband system fiberoptic broadband system with one gigabit per second over the EPB fiber network. Unfortunately, big wireless companies such as Verizon and AT&T wish to remove all barriers to their dominant business model and thus have sued cities for unfair competition, even though cites are provided broadband equality to all. Companies are going around that by allowing all service providers to use the fiberoptic for fast service.  A concise and important publication which helps cities navigate the laws to provide faster, cheaper, safer and more equitable broadband service- Reinventing Wires: The Future of Landlines and Networks- is  here.

5G Fiberoptic to the Home: The Smarter Option Over Wireless

technology-2749586_1280There is growing concern, despite industry ads,  that 5G is overrated and that the expense will not match profit margin. There is also closer scrutiny of the 5G rollout with the knowledge that underground fiberoptic networks are much more reliable than wireless networks in a fire or for emergencies.

The exceptional  publication Reinventing Wires: The Future of Landlines and Networks  reviews the advantages of fiberoptic networks and why cities and municipalities are developing cable networks for local and rural areas.  Community Owned Open Access MuniNetworks are the fastest growing and safer alternative to 5G antennas.  Utility poles overloaded with cell antenna equipment from multiple carriers were responsible for fires in Malibu in 2007, costing about $100 million in fines. This is a more common occurrence with severe weather changes and aging poles.

Advantages of Fiberoptic to the premises (FTTP):

  • Fiberoptic networks are much less susceptible to congestion due to each household having a dedicated link
  • Underground FTTP are less susceptible to damage from fires which are becoming more frequent.
  • Fiberoptic To The Premises (FTTP) is not subject to terrain variability, such as trees and hills, thus is the best and most equitable method for delivery of broadband internet.
  • Fiberoptic has faster speed, less energy use and more privacy and security than with wireless systems
  • Fiberoptic does not emit harmful radio frequency radiation, which has been shown to harm humans,
  • Open Access Fiberoptic systems are a win-win for industry and cities.

Cable Industry Introduces 10 G Alternative to Wireless: Faster, Safer, Cheaper

While wireless carriers are hyping 5G (5th Generation) as the “fourth industrial revolution” with fast streaming and downloads, cable companies have introduced their own fast network capability called 10G– for 10 gigabytes per second  (10 Gbps)-compared to 1 Gbps currently.   CableLabs chief Phil McKinney  said , “There’s nothing new that has to be invented…Everything has been specified. Everything has been designed. The technical work has been done and proven.” 10G is cabled and does not have the privacy, cybersecurity or health risks of wireless technologies and infrastructure. Although it is planed to be incorporated with the rollout of 5G it does not have to have wireless in the home if people do not wish to have it. Also  as in a USA Article  “the rollout of 10G does not require digging up the street or any kind of massive reengineering. “This is something we can do with the guts of our existing networks,”

5G Moratorium Called for by Scientists Due to Human and Environmental Threats

5G: International Society of Doctors Environmental Appeal 2018

5G Intern Soc Doc Envir creen Shot 2018-05-18

The International Society of Doctors for the Environment states in their 5 G Appeal for a moratorium on  5G “We believe it should be unethical to ignore the available evidence waiting a possible “a posteriori” demonstration of health damages in the presence of a present and potentially manageable risk for public health…..Thus, in the respect of the precautionary principle and of the WHO principle “health in all policies”, we believe suitable the request of a standstill for the “5G experimentations” throughout Europe until an adequate and active involvement of public institutions operating in the field of environmental health (health ministry, environmental ministry, national environmental and health agencies) will be effectively planned.”

International 5G Appeal: Scientists and Doctors Warn of Potential Serious Health Effects

We the undersigned scientists and doctors  recommend a moratorium on the roll-out of the fifth generation, 5G, for telecommunication until potential hazards for human health and the environment have been fully investigated by scientists independent from industry.  5G will substantially increase exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on top of the 2G, 3G, 4G, Wi-Fi, etc. for telecommunications already in place. RF-EMF has been proven to be harmful for humans and the environment.”        5G Appeal

Newly Published Scientific Articles on 5G and Public Health

Shearwood McClelland, III, MD and Jerry J. Jaboin, MD, PhD, Open Letter Regarding 5G and Need for Physician Involvement

Department of Radiation Medicine,  Oregon Health and Science University, Portland Oregon- On 5G Technology. “The impending rollout of fifth-generation (5G) Wi-Fi in mobile phones, augmenting the current fourth-generation (4G) technology toward making global interconnectivity between devices a reality, has been touted as a significant improvement of speed compared to current and previous wireless signaling (1) . Less well explored are the potential consequences associated with this need for speed: namely, the substantial increase in biologic exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from the 1900-2100 MHz associated with 4G to the 3500 MHz estimated median bandwidth of 5G (2)  While studies of human lymphocytes have indicated no impact of short-term (30-minute) 900 MHz exposure on DNA integrity, animal studies have demonstrated that longterm exposure to 900-1800 MHz via second-generation mobile phone radiation (48 min/d for 30-180 days) induces hippocampal damage…

What is the role of the medical community (particularly radiation oncology) in this arena? Are we to remain silent while focusing only on optimizing care of our immediate patients, or do we have a responsibility to utilize our clinical knowledge of radiation safety and efficacy to aid in preventing corporate profit from being the primary determinant of acceptable radiation exposure from wireless networks?”   Dr. McClelland and Dr. Jaboin Open Letter 5G-2018. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics, Volume 101, No. 5, 2018 Pg 1274.

Citizen Formal Appeal to 5G Small Cell Towers in San Francisco, California

Cheryl Hogan provides an intelligent, well researched and passionate appeal to the San Francisco Board of Appeals to stop a small cell tower to be placed next to her residence on June 19, 2019. She points out that the hazards of these cell towers are not just hers but shared by all of us.

Cell tower SF Board of Appeals brief Hogan  2019

Cell tower SF Board of Appeals speech Hogan 6-19-2019

5G Information Fact Sheets for Printing

Environmental Health Trust has created information sheets on 5G and Small Cells  that have valuable information and can be shared with policy makers, community leaders and others.

 5G and Small Cells- WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW -Color Print Version

 5G and Small Cells- WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW- in Black and White Print Version

Scientific letters on health risks from physicians and researchers on small cells.

SaferEMR also has information on 5G –SaferEMR 5G Moratorium and Appeal

5G Wireless Technology: Millimeter Wave Health Effects SaferEMR.com on Millimeter Wave Technology

Should the Internet Really Be Everything?  What’s Not So Smart About Out Smart Tech Future. Alison Main. Paleo Magazine Dec/Jan 2018. Should the Internet Be Everything?

Review Articles Regarding Harm

Radiation From Cell Phones, Wi Fi are Hurting the Birds and the Bees; 5G May Make it Worse. 5/19/18 Newsweek

5G: Great Risk for EU, U.S., and International Health. Compelling Evidence of Eight Distinct Types of Harm Cause by Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Exposures and the Mechanism that Causes Them.

5G From Blankets to Bullets: Phased Arrays

A 5G Wireless Future-Will it Give Us a Smart Nation or Contribute to an Unhealthy One? SCCMA Bulletin June, 2017

A 5G Wireless Future: Will it Contribute to an Unhealthy One? PDF with References

5G Wireless Technology: Millimeter Wave Health Effects

What’s Not So Smart About Our Smart Tech Future?

Senator Patrick Colbeck Discusses the Health Risks of Wireless Technology and 5G Expansion, March 15, 2018

Technology Business Perspective

Here is a  Technology Industry Review of their plans for the Internet of Things, Virtual Reality, self driving cars and more. Continue to scroll  down for information regarding health and safety concerns.

Industry Describes Fixed Wireless Systems Development

In a Wireless 2020 Business Conference, Moderator of RCR Wireless News opens discussion of current plans for fixed wireless access by companies in the the initial development phase of 5G technology.  They point out that this wireless system is not really mobile but depends on thousands of fixed antenna for use.  Cost becomes an issue for this proposed widespread technology.  They discuss different bands and characteristics for use. An interesting business perspective which does not include health or environmental effects. March 2017.

5G Wireless Technology: Cutting Through the Hype

Dr. Joel Moskowitz  (SaferEMR.com) discusses the hype and realities of the “Global Race to 5G” which industry states will be 100 times faster and connect with 100 times more device in 5G Wireless Technology: Cutting Through the Hype. He also discusses the EMF Scientist Appeal to the WHO to urge reevaluation of safety standards for 2G,3G and 4G technology as well as a 5G Moratorium Appeal. Scientists and Doctors call for 5G Moratorium.

5G Technology: Potential Risks To Human Health: Excerpts From Scientific Conference, Israel, January 2017.

 Physicist Dr. Paul Ben-Ishai discusses his research on 5G technology and how millimeter wavelengths affect human skin and sweat glands preferentially and act as helical antennas from 75 to 100 Gigahertz millimeter wavelengths.

What Cities are Testing 5G in 2018?

Many major cities have installed 5G test sites. There is testing for reliability of communications however no testing is performed for health or safety.  They expect commercial rollout later in 2018.  In the tests listed below,  the  5G millimeter frequencies range from 3GHz to about 27 GHz.

United States

Sacramento -The First City to Have 5G- Questions Raised About 5G Health Risks Months Before Sacramento Launches Service. May 29, 2018.  CBS Local. https://sacramento.cbslocal.com/2018/05/29/questions-raised-about-5g-health-risks-months-before-sacramento-launches-service  The City of Sacramento partnered with Verizon to offer 5G. A spokesperson told CBS13 the City of Sacramento currently has six active 5G sites- all are on SMUD utility poles:

  • 1731 E Street
  • 1619 E Street
  • 421 14TH Street
  • 2330 Q Street
  • 2019 21ST Street
  • 801 16TH Street

Sacramento will soon initiate testing in residencies for 5G. Editor’s Corner—How the city of Sacramento got to 5G, and what it means for the rest of the U.S. April 2, 2018 FierceWireless. https://www.fiercewireless.com/tech/editor-s-corner-how-city-sacramento-got-to-5g-and-what-it-means-for-rest-u-s

How Smart is San Jose? Silicon Valley’s Biggest City Tries to Catch Up with the Digital Future. July 26, 2018. Metro Silicon Valley. Lauren Hepler. https://www.sanjoseinside.com/2018/07/26/how-smart-is-san-jose-silicon-valleys-biggest-city-tries-to-catch-up-with-the-digital-future/

San Jose Smart City Initiative: San Jose picks three companies to make street lights ‘smart,’ set groundwork for 5G. Silicon Valley Business Journal. June 15, 2018. https://www.bizjournals.com/sanjose/news/2018/06/15/san-jose-picks-three-companies-to-make-street.html

San Jose Smart City Vision.  Offering Game changing technology and data-driven decision making. Office of Mayor Sam Liccardo. https://www.sanjoseca.gov/index.aspx?nid=5289

San Jose Smart Cities and Service Improvement Committee Meetings Held Quarterly. Smart City Improvement Workplanhttp://www.sanjoseca.gov/index.aspx?NID=5730

Dallas, Waco, Atlanta-  AT&T Measuring Gigabit Download Speeds Using Millimeter Wave Spectrum in 5G Tests. April 11, 2018. https://www.radiomagonline.com/trends/at-t-measuring-gigabit-download-speeds-using-millimeter-wave-spectrum-in-5g-tests

Verizon Will Light Up  Fixed 5G in 3 Markets in 2018.  Nov 30, 2017 https://www.sdxcentral.com/articles/news/verizon-will-light-fixed-5g-3-5-markets-2018/2017/11/.  2018 Cites with 5G

Verizon Testing super Fast 5G Internet With Customers in 11 Cities. Feb 22, 2017. http://fortune.com/2017/02/22/verizon-testing-5g-11-cities/. Verizon Plans 5G in 11 Cities in America

Washington D.C. 5G Testing -Washington D.C- 5G Permit Washington DC-OET Special Temporary Authority Report

New Jersey- 5G Testing- New Jersey5G Permit NJ-FCC FORM 442


Paris–Orange Starts 5G Testing in Paris: After successful trials in Romania, Orange begins testing 5G use cases in its home country. July 19, 2018. https://www.computerweekly.com/news/252445178/Orange-starts-5G-tests-in-Paris

Melbourne- NBN Co To Run 5G Tests in Melbourne: Future fixed Wireless Enhancement. Ericsson. April 10, 2018. https://www.itnews.com.au/news/nbn-co-to-run-5g-tests-in-melbourne-488643

Manilla, Philippines- Smart posts speeds of 14.97 Gbps in latest 5G tests. June 27, 2018. https://www.rappler.com/technology/news/205721-smart-5g-tests-philippines-june-2018

Africa- MTN Takes Its 5G Tests Outdoors. May 9, 2018. http://www.connectingafrica.com/author.asp?section_id=530&doc_id=742935

Canada and New Zealand announce major 5G tests, but national service remains years off. March 19, 2018. https://venturebeat.com/2018/03/19/canada-and-new-zealand-announce-major-5g-tests-but-national-service-remains-years-off/

Testimony against 5G cell towers

Actress Ali McGraw testifies against 5G cell tower bill in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

News Articles 5G