The number of cell towers worldwide has had exponential growth since the 1990’s. In the U.S. large cell tower numbers have risen from about 900 in 1985 to over 308,334 cell sites in service in 2016. This is according to the Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association (CTIA), established in 1984 just before the rollout of cell towers. The telecommunications industry places cell towers in cities but also leases rooftops on schools, churches, businesses and apartment buildings with antennas for one or more carriers. This co-location can create clusters of antennas with different frequencies in close proximity to where people live, work, study and play. These base stations emit a continuous stream of microwave radiofrequencies exposing residents to whole body exposures. More cell towers are being proposed throughout the US now on a statewide and federal level to accommodate proposed 5G high frequency telecommunications with cell towers about every 250 meters (~750 feet).
The rise in cell towers has been accompanied by scientific observations and reports of both human health and environmental decline in many countries.
- 5G Telecommunications Science
- 5G Mobile Communications
- Cell Towers and City Ordinances
- New Legislation Cell Towers
Adverse Health Symptoms Near Cell Towers
The majority of published studies in different countries have shown a relationship between distance from base stations and a variety of health complaints. They have found that the closer to the towers people live there is an increase incidence of reported physical symptoms including those below. These are the same symptoms that military personnel working on radar have experienced, people who have microwave illness (AKA electrosensitivity) experience and also similar to what Cuban and Chinese Diplomats reported in unusual “attacks in 2017. See (Cuban Diplomats Likely Hit by Microwave Weapons -New York Times )
- heart palpitations
- loss of appetite
- feeling of discomfort
- loss of libido
- poor concentration
- memory loss
- neuropsychiatric problems such as depression.
Blood Cell Abnormalities Found
Zothansiama 2017 – In a recent study from India by Zothansiama et al (2017), researchers examined abnormalities in blood samples in people living at different distances from cell towers. They identified a significant increase blood cell damage in those living within 80 meters of a cell tower versus those living greater than 300 meters from a cell tower. They found 1) A significant increase in micronuclei, which are small remnants of DNA nuclear material appearing within blood cells and a sensitive indicator of genotoxicity and chromosomal abnormalities 2) An increase in lipid peroxidation indicating free radical formation and cell membrane damage 3) A reduction in levels of internally produced antioxidant capacity (glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase).
The author concluded “The present study demonstrated that staying near the mobile base stations and continuous use of mobile phones damage the DNA, and it may have an adverse effect in the long run. The persistence of DNA unrepaired damage leads to genomic instability which may lead to several health disorders including the induction of cancer.” As more base stations are deployed with higher density and with ubiquitous wireless devices at home it will be difficult to find control groups that have not been significantly exposed. The Antenna Search website allows people to identify registered cell towers in their area.
School Cell Tower Study in 2018 Study Shows Cognitive Decline in Students
Meo 2018 – A recent case controlled 2 year scientific study examining the neurologic effects of children, aged 13-16, in schools with nearby cell towers revealed significant decline in cognitive scores when the radiation from the cell tower was higher but still at non-thermal levels. Students in School 1 (124 students) were exposed to cell tower radiation at 2.010 µW/cm2 at a frequency of 925 MHz for 6 hr a day, 5 days a week. Students at School 2 were exposed to cell tower radiation at 10.021 µW/cm2 at a frequency of 925 MHz for 6 hr a day, 5 days a week. Both groups had exposure for 2 years. Cognitive functions tasks were measured by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Participants were excluded who had any confounding factors , i.e. those with any pre existing illness, on any medications, with history of anxiety or attention problems, frequent use of cordless or cell phones, use of Wi-Fi routers in their bedrooms, or those who lived near high transmission lines or cell towers.
The researchers used the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) to measure cognitive functions tasks. They found “a significant impairment in Motor Screening Task (MOT; p = .03) and Spatial Working Memory (SWM) task (p = .04) was identified among the group of students who were exposed to high RF-EMF produced by MPBSTs. High exposure to RF-EMF produced by MPBSTs was associated with delayed fine and gross motor skills, spatial working memory, and attention in school adolescents compared to students who were exposed to low RF-EMF. Most notable is that the current FCC safety “guidelines” for 30 minute exposure are 1000 µW/cm2.. This FCC limit is 100 times more RF than the students experienced in the highest exposure group that showed cognitive decline and with non-thermal effects.
Study here-“Mobile Phone Base Station Tower Settings Adjacent to School Buildings: Impact on Students’ Cognitive Health. Mao SA et al. American Journal of Men’s Health. December 7, 2018. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1557988318816914
Cancer and Cell Towers
Wolf and Wolf 2004 investigated the rates of cancer versus distance from cell towers in small towns in Israel. He found the rate of cancer incidence was 129 cases per 10,000 persons per year in those living within 350 meters of a cell tower versus a rate of 16-31/10,000 in those living greater than 350 meters from the cell tower. Eger (2004) also found an increase in the development of new cancer cases within a 10 year period if residents lived within 400 meters of a cell tower. Their results revealed that within 5 years of operation of a transmitting station the relative risk of cancer development tripled in residents near the cell towers compared to residents outside the area.
Dode 2011 performed a 10 year study (1996-2006) examining the distance from cell towers and cancer clusters. He and his colleagues found a highly significant increase in cancers in those living within 500 meters of the cell tower. They noted “The largest density power was 40.78 μW/cm2, and the smallest was 0.04 μW/cm2.” The current guidelines are about 1000 μW/cm2. The authors conclude “Measured values stay below Brazilian Federal Law limits that are the same of ICNIRP. The human exposure pattern guidelines are inadequate. More restrictive limits must be adopted urgently.”
Ghandi in 2015 used comet assays to determine genetic damage in those living in the vicinity of mobile base stations. He found that genetic damage was elevated in the sample group. He concluded, “analysis further revealed daily mobile phone usage, location of residence and power density as significant predictors of genetic damage… which…may lead to cancer.”
Cell Towers and Metabolic Disorders
Meo (2015) Several studies on cell towers show metabolic changes and dysfunction in persons exposed to cell tower radiation. Meo (2015) looked at the association of exposure to radio frequency radiation from mobile phone base stations with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in 2 different schools. The cell towers were about 200 feet from each school. One school had about 10 times higher radiation levels. They found a significant increase in elevated levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the school with higher RF levels.
Eskander (2012) looked at long term exposure to RF from cell towers over a 6 year period. They showed a reduction in volunteers’ plasma ACTH, serum cortisol levels and a decrease in the release of the thyroid hormones especially T3. In addition prolactin in young females (14–22 years), and testosterone levels [in males] significantly dropped.
Biological Effects from Exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation From Cell Towers
Blake Levitt, an award-winning medical and science journalist and former New York Times contributor is author of Cell Towers-Wireless Convenience? or Environmental Hazard? (2000) The book lists different chapters from different authors who contributed to a “Cell Towers Forum: State of the Science/State of the law” environmental conference December 2, 2000. Her book has valuable information on FCC safety guidelines, legal aspects of the Telecommunications Act, cell tower sitings and case law. She also co-authored Biological effects from exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell tower base stations and other antenna arrays. (2010) Environmental Reviews, 2010, 18(NA): 369-395. Biological effects from exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell tower base stations and other antenna arrays
Conclusions From Research Health Effects of Cell Towers
A brief review of some of the research listed is below. Wildlife is even effected by cell towers.
Santini 2002, in a French study, reported an increase in fatigue at 300 meters from the cell towers and remaining symptoms at 200 meters. A follow up study by Santini in 2003 revealed that older subjects reported more symptoms and were more sensitive. Duration of exposure of 1 to 5 years did not have an effect on frequency of symptoms but after 5 years there was a significant increase in irritability reported.
Navarro (2003) indicates much lower levels of exposure cause adverse health symptoms. The Navarro (2003) study on cell towers and “Microwave Syndrome” in Spain found that in those living near cell towers symptoms occurred at low power. He looked at distance from the towers and electromagnetic field exposures and concluded, ” Based on the data of this study the advice would be to strive for levels not higher than 0.02 V/m for the sum total, which is equal to a power density of 0.0001 µW/cm² or 1 µW/m², which is the indoor exposure value for GSM base stations proposed on empirical evidence by the Public Health Office of the Government of Salzburg in 2002.”
Hutter (2006) , in an Austrian study, looked at cognitive performance, insomnia and well being in relation to power density of radiofrequency radiation versus reported symptoms in those in rural vs urban settings for more than a year. His study showed an increase in health effects with higher radiofrequency exposure. Important conclusions were that these complaints were independent of patients concern over health effects and that at levels well below current safety standards.
Abdel-Rassoul (2006) Researchers looked at neurologic effects of inhabitants living under or across from cell tower base stations versus those far away. They found “The prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms such as headache (23.5%), memory changes (28.2%), dizziness (18.8%), tremors (9.4%), depressive symptoms (21.7%), and sleep disturbance (23.5%) were significantly higher among exposed inhabitants than controls: (10%), (5%), (5%), (0%), (8.8%) and (10%).” In addition, “the exposed inhabitants exhibited a significantly lower performance than controls in one of the tests of attention and short-term auditory memory” also, “the inhabitants opposite the station exhibited a lower performance in the problem solving test (block design) than those under the station.” All readings were within the standard guidelines. They recommend revision of standard guidelines for public exposure to RER from mobile phone base station antennas.
Sivan and Sudarsanam 2012 Review of Literature- The Inter-Ministerial Committee (IMC) covered scientists to review the literature of the effects of RF-EMF radiations on wildlife, humans and the biosphere. In their 2010 MOEF Report they found that out of the 919 research papers collected on birds, bees, plants, other animals, and humans, 593 showed impacts, 180 showed no impacts, and 196 were inconclusive studies
They concluded, “Based on current available literature, it is justified to conclude that RF-EMF radiation exposure can change neurotransmitter functions, blood-brain barrier, morphology, electrophysiology, cellular metabolism, calcium efflux, and gene and protein expression in certain types of cells even at lower intensities. They noted as well that, “Identification of the frequency, intensity, and duration of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields causing damage to the biosystem and ecosystem would evolve strategies for mitigation and would enable the proper use of wireless technologies to enjoy its immense benefits, while ensuring one’s health and that of the environment.”
Percentage of studies that reported harmful effect of EMR in various groups in MOEF Report
Human Effects– 62% showed effects, 13% no effect and 25% inconclusive
Plant Effects– 87% showed effects and 13% were inconclusive
Wildlife Effects- 62% showed effects, 4% no effect and 36% inconclusive
Bee Effects—85% showed effects and 15% no effect
Bird Effects- 77% showed effects, 10% no effect and 13% inconclusive
Shinjyo and Shinjyo 2014 in an independent cell tower study from Japan, looked at health effects of residents living in a condominium complex from 1998-2009, noting health symptoms before placement of cell towers, during cell tower functioning and after removal of different antennas on the rooftops. They found a significant development of symptoms with placement of the cell towers and a significant reduction in symptoms after removal. The most frequent symptoms were fatigue, loss of motivation, headaches, eye pain, deteriorated eyesight, sleep disturbances, dizziness, jitteriness, rapid heat rate, muscle aches and nasal bleeding.
- Analysis of mobile tower radiation and its health effects in Champhai District of Mizoram Lallawmzuala L et al. (2019) “Analysis of mobile tower radiation and its health effects in Champhai District of Mizoram. 2019 URSI Asia-Pacific Radio Science Conference (AP-RASC), New Delhi, India, 2019, pp. 1-1. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=8738408&isnumber=8738126
- Mobile Phone Base Station Tower Settings Adjacent to School Buildings: Impact on Students’ Cognitive Health. Mao SA et al. American Journal of Men’s Health. December 7, 2018. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1557988318816914
- Mobile phone use, school electromagnetic field levels and related symptoms: a cross-sectional survey among 2150 high school students in Izmir. (2017) Durusoy R et al. Environmental Health. Vol 16,Article 51. June 2, 2017. https://ehjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12940-017-0257-x
- Impact of radiofrequency radiation on DNA damage and antioxidants in peripheral blood lymphocytes of humans residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations. (2017) Zothansiama et al. Electromagn Biol Med. 2017;36(3):295-305. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28777669
- Effect of GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphisms on Genetic Damage in Humans Populations Exposed to Radiation From Mobile Towers. (2016) Gulati S et al. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2016 Apr;70(3):615-25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26238667?dopt=Abstract
- Survey of People Living at the Vicinity of Cellualr Base Transmitting Stations in an Urban and Rural Locality. (2016) Sivani Saravanamuttu. International Journal of Current Research react-text: 55 8(3):28186-28193. March https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301677652_SURVEY_OF_PEOPLE_LIVING_AT_THE_VICINITY_OF_CELLULAR_BASE_TRANSMITTING_STATIONS_IN_AN_URBAN_AND_A_RURAL_LOCALITY
- Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function. (2016) Singh,K et al. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2016 Jan-Feb;6(1):54-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=PMC4784065
- A cross-sectional case control study on genetic damage in individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station. (2015) Gandhi G. Electromagn Biol Med. 2015;34(4):344-54. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25006864
- Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR) Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. (2015) Sultan Ayoub Meo et al, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2015. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283726472_Association_of_Exposure_to_Radio-Frequency_Electromagnetic_Field_Radiation_RF-EMFR_Generated_by_Mobile_Phone_Base_Stations_with_Glycated_Hemoglobin_HbA1c_and_Risk_of_Type_2_Diabetes_Mellitus
- Health effects of living near mobile phone base transceiver station (BTS) antennae: a report from Isfahan, Iran.(2014). Shahbazi-Gahrouei D et al. Electromagn Biol Med. 2014 Sep;33(3):206-10 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23781985
- Significant Decrease of Clinical Symptoms after Mobile Phone Base Station Removal –An Intervention Study. (2014). Tetsuharu Shinjyo and Akemi Shinjyo. http://www.slt.co/Downloads/News/1086/Shinjyo%202014%20Significant%20Decrease%20of%20Clinical%20Symptoms%20after%20Mobile%20Phone%20Base%20Station%20Removal%20.pdf
- Health Implications of Electromagnetic Fields, Mechanisms of Action, and Research Needs. (2014) Sarika Singh and Neeru Kapoor Advances in Biology. Volume 2014 (2014). https://www.hindawi.com/archive/2014/198609/
- Subjective symptoms related to GSM radiation from mobile phone base stations: a cross-sectional study. (2013) Gomez-Peretta C, Navarro EA, Segura J et al. BMJ Open 2013;3:e003836. http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/3/12/e003836.full
- Subjective Complaints of People Living Near Mobile Base Stations in Poland. (2012) Bortkiewicz A. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health. 25(1):31-40 · March 2012. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/51983748_Subjective_complaints_of_people_living_near_mobile_phone_base_stations_in_Poland
- How does long term exposure to base stations and mobile phones affect human hormone profiles? (2012) Eskander EF. Clin Biochem. 2012 Jan;45(1-2):157-61. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0009912011027330?via%3Dihub
- [Increased occurrence of nuclear cataract in the calf after erection of a mobile phone base station]. (2012) Hassig M et al. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2012 Feb;154(2):82-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22287140
- Impacts of radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) from cell phone towers and wireless devices on biosystem and ecosystem – a review. (2012) Sivan S, Sudarsanam D. Biology and Medicine, 4 (4): 202–216, 2012. http://www.biolmedonline.com/Articles/Vol4_4_2012/Vol4_4_202-216_BM-8.pdf
- Changes of Clinically Important Neurotransmitters Under the Influence of Modulated RF Fields- A Long-term Study Under Real-life Conditions. (2011) Buchner K and Eger H. https://ecfsapi.fcc.gov/file/7521095891.pdf
- Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base stations in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. (2011) A Dode et al. Science of The Total Environment. Volume 409, Issue 19, September 2011 , Pages 3649-3665 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969711005754
- Wireless communication fields and non-specific symptoms of ill health: a literature review. (2011) Roosli M et al. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2011 May;161(9-10):240-50 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21638215
- Report on Cell Tower Radiation. Submitted to Secretary, DOT, Delhi, India.(2010) Kumar G. Electrical engineering Department. IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumai https://www.ee.iitb.ac.in/~mwave/GK-cell-tower-rad-report-DOT-Dec2010.pdf
- Epidemiological evidence for a health risk from mobile phone base stations. (2010) Khurana VG. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2010 Jul-Sep;16(3):263-7 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20662418
- Biological effects from exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell tower base stations and other antenna arrays. (2010) Page 374- Biological Effects at Low intensity) Blake Levitt, Henry Lai. Environmental Reviews, 2010, 18(NA): 369-395. http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/full/10.1139/A10-018#.WYUlOHeZNo4
- Systematic review on the health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations. (2010) Röösli M et al. Bull World Health Organ. 2010 Dec 1;88(12):887-896. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21124713
- Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: phase 1 of a population-based, cross-sectional study in Germany. (2009) Blettner M et al. Occup Environ Med. 2009 Feb;66(2):118-23. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19017702
- Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations. (2007) Abdel-Rassoul G. Neurotoxicology. 2007 Mar;28(2):434-40. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16962663
- Subjective symptoms, sleeping problems, and cognitive performance in subjects living near mobile phone base stations. (2007) Hutter HP. Occup Environ Med 2006;63:307-313. http://oem.bmj.com/content/63/5/307.abstract?ijkey=9ae18f97484bfbf95e6f8c3eb92b69fe356ef640&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
- Effect of short-wave (6-22 MHz) magnetic fields on sleep quality and melatonin cycle in humans: the Schwarzenburg shut-down study. (2006) Altpeter ES et al. Bioelectromagnetics. 2006 Feb;27(2):142-50. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16342198https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16342198
- Health risks from mobile phone base stations. (2006) Coggon D. Occup Environ Med. 2006 May; 63(5): 298–299. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2092494/
- Living dangerously in Indian cities: An RF radiation pollution perspective. (2006) Tanwar VS. IEEE Explore. Conference Paper: 2006 Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on ElectroMagnetic Interference and Compatibility (INCEMIC),. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/224118199_Living_dangerously_in_Indian_cities_An_RF_radiation_pollution_perspective or https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/5419750/?reload=true
- [Subjective symptoms reported by people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations: review]. (2004) Bortkiewicz A Poland. Med Pr. 2004;55(4):345-51. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15620045 or PDF https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b408/5b30ab6f6e30d509ba4711299f9a4b1fdd2d.pdf?_ga=2.225978847.47809486.1565033400-736313411.1565033400
- The Influence of Being Physically Near to a Cell Phone Transmission Mast on the Incidence of Cancer. (2004) Egger H et al. January 2004. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/241473738_The_Influence_of_Being_Physically_Near_to_a_Cell_Phone_Transmission_Mast_on_the_Incidence_of_Cancer
- Increased Incidence of Cancer Near a Cell Phone Transmitter Station. (2004) Wolf and Wolf. Kaplan Medical Center, Israel. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.527.1036&rep=rep1&type=pdf
- Increased incidence of cancer near a cell-phone transmitter station. Wolf, R., Wolf, D. International Journal of Cancer Prevention Vol 1, Number 2, April 2004. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228490892_Increased_incidence_of_cancer_near_a_cell-phone_transmitter_station
- The Microwave Syndrome: A Preliminary Study in Spain. (2003) Navarro, EA et al. Researchgate. Electrobiology and Medicine. Dec. 2002 PDF. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c284/2cc49dcb87d4ca9f9a2d485236a103b2e3f0.pdf?_ga=2.148991350.1785924807.1565025138-1589774163.1565025138
- The microwave Syndrome: A Preliminary Study in Spain. (2003) Navarro, EA et al. Electrobiology and Medicine. Dec. 2002. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1081/JBC-120024625
- [Symptoms experienced by people in vicinity of base stations: II/ Incidences of age, duration of exposure, location of subjects in relation to the antennas and other electromagnetic factors]. (2003) Santini R. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2003 Sep;51(7):412-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12948762
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- Radiofrequency (RF) sickness in the Lilienfeld Study: an effect of modulated microwaves? (1998) Johnson Liakouris AG. Arch Environ Health. 1998 May-Jun;53(3):236-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=PMID%3A+9814721
- Motor and psychological functions of school children living in the area of the Skrunda Radio Location Station in Latvia. (1996). Kolodynski AA, Kolodynska VV, Sci Total Environ 180(1):87-93, 1996. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/004896979504924X
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Animal, Insect and Wildlife Effects of Cell Towers
- Electromagnetic Radiation of Mobile Communication Antennas Affects the Abundance and composition of Wild Pollinators. Lazaro,A. Journal of Insect Conservation react-text: 61 20(2):1-10, April 2016. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301647025_Electromagnetic_radiation_of_mobile_telecommunication_antennas_affects_the_abundance_and_composition_of_wild_pollinators
- Impacts of radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) from cell phone towers and wireless devices on biosystem and ecosystem—A review. (2013) Sivani Saravanamuttu. January 9. 2013. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258521207_Impacts_of_radio-frequency_electromagnetic_field_RF-EMF_from_cell_phone_towers_and_wireless_devices_on_biosystem_and_ecosystem-A_review
- Report on Possible Impacts of Communication Cell Towers on Wildlife Including Birds and Bees. (2010) The Ministry of Environment and Forest. http://www.moef.nic.in/downloads/publicinformation/final_mobile_towers_report.pdf or http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/content/341385/report-on-possible-impacts-of-communication-towers-on-wildlife-including-birds-and-bees/
- Mobile phone mast effects on common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles: the city turned into a laboratory. (2010) Balmori A. Electromagn Biol Med. 2010 Jun;29(1-2):31-5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20560769
- Electromagnetic pollution from phone masts. Effects on wildlife. (2009) Balmori A. Pathophysiology. 2009 Aug;16(2-3):191-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19264463
- The Skrunda Radio Location Case https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0048969795049134