Compendiums and Reviews of EMF/EMR

Scientific References

Updated 11/7/21

See also

Compendiums and Reviews on Radiofrequency Radiation and Exposures – Human, Children, Occupational, Environmental

Reviews on Human Health

Reviews on the Physics and Mechanisms of Electromagnetic Radiation 

Reviews on Wildlife, Insect and Animal Effects

Terrestrial Radiofrequency Levels: Natural versus Manmade 

 Animal and Insect Studies on Exposure Duration and Power Limits

Human Exposures Scientific References: Ambient, Children, Skin

Ambient Environmental RF Exposures of Cell Towers, Wi Fi and Cell Phones

  • Setting Guidelines for Electromagnetic Exposures and Research Needs. (2020) Barnes F et al. Bioelectromagnetics. 2020 Apr 20.
  • Human EMF Exposure in Wearable Networks for Internet of Battlefield Things. (2019) Nasim and Kim.  IEEE Military Communications Conference 2019.
  • Real-world cell phone radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposures. (2019) Wall S et al. Environ Res. 2019 Apr;171:581-592.
  • High ambient radiofrequency radiation in Stockholm city, Sweden. (2019) Carlberg M et al. Oncology Letters. December 3, 2018. Pages: 1777-1783.    “The total mean level was 5,494 µW/m2 (median 3,346; range 36.6‑205,155). The major contributions were down links from LTE 800 (4G), GSM + UMTS 900 (3G), GSM 1800 (2G), UMTS 2100 (3G) and LTE 2600 (4G). Regarding different places, the highest RF radiation was measured at the Hay Market with a mean level of 10,728 µW/m2 (median 8,578; range 335‑68,815). This is a square used for shopping, and both retailers and visitors may spend considerable time at this place. Also, the Sergel Plaza had high radiation with a mean of 7,768 µW/m2. All measurements exceeded the target level of 30‑60 µW/m2 based on non‑thermal (no heating) effects, according to the BioInitiative Report.”
  • Radiofrequency radiation from nearby base stations gives high levels in an apartment in Stockholm, Sweden: A case report. (2018) Hardell L et al.  Oncology Letters. March 16, 2018. “The total mean RF radiation level was 3,811 µW/m2 (range 15.2‑112,318 µW/m2) for the measurement of the whole apartment, including balconies…. Due to the current high RF radiation, the apartment is not suitable for long‑term living, particularly for children who may be more sensitive than adults.”


Children’s Exposures to RF

Skin and Body Absorption

Occupational Exposures

Occupational Exposures in Hospitals and Medical Clinics

  • Non-Ionizing Radiation in Swedish Health Care-Exposure and Safety Aspects. (2019)  Hansson Mild K et al. Int J Environ REs Public Health. 2019 Apr 2;16(7).
  • Evaluation of the electromagnetic field intensity in operating rooms and estimation of occupational exposures of personnel. (2018)  Sept;10(3):121-126.Interv Med Appl Sci. 2018 Sep;10(3):121-126.
  • Environmental impact of the use of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in physiotherapeutic treatment.(2014)  Gryz  K. Rocz Panstw Kakl Hig. 2014;65(1):55-61.
  • [Patient exposure to electromagnetic fields in magnetic resonance scanners: a review]. (2013) Radiologia. 2013 Dec;55 Suppl 2:2-8.
  • Assessment of physiotherapists’ occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from shortwave and microwave diathermy devices: a literature review. (2013) Shah SG.  J Occup Environ Hyg. 2013;10(6):312-27.
  • [European Directive 2004/40/EC on workers’ exposure to electromagnetic fields from MRI]. (2009) Moratal D et al. Radiologia. 2009 Jan-Feb;51(1):30-7;
  • Intensity of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields produced in operating rooms during surgery at the standing position of anesthesiologists. (2009) Roh JH et al.  Anesthesiology. (2009) Aug;111(2):275-8.
  • An evaluation of safety guidelines to restrict exposure to stray radiofrequency radiation from short-wave diathermy units. (2004) Shields N et al. Phys Med Biol. 004 Jul 7;49(13):2999-3015.
  • How much are anesthesiologists exposed to electromagnetic fields in operating rooms? (2003) Lee JH et al. Yonsei Med J. 2003 Feb;44(1):133-7.

Shielding and Reducing Exposure to RFR


NGO Compilations