In many states, like California, there has been a relentless push over the last several years to blanket 5G cell towers over broad and beautiful landscapes. Telecom’s promise of connecting everyone to their toasters, webcams, and self-driving cars anywhere at any time, as well as a promise to close the digital divide, appears to have allured and aligned California legislators into passing laws that promote the Telecom agenda. In California 2 telecom bills predominate in 2023. The first, AB 965 (Carrillo) removes more local authority and thoughtful permitting for cities by allowing unlimited batched permits for cell tower placement within a shot clock or they will be deemed approved. This would spell a massive and rapid increase in cell towers throughout California. The second bill, AB 1065 (Patterson). allows for California funds previously designated for fiberoptic to be used for wireless infrastructure.
The deliberate industry goal is a “light regulatory framework” in order “to remove regulatory barriers”. Wireless technology is surely useful and convenient, however, with the massive and intrusive buildout of cell towers on land and in space, long term sustainability factors need to be placed into the equation. These include significant and irreparable harm to the environment from increased energy use, mining of minerals on land and in the ocean with effects on sea life, E waste, harm to wildlife, trees, and bees, as well as harm to public health, human rights violations abroad and harm to children’s mental health. While some laws are wise and promote safer, faster, locally controlled wired fiber, some bills are considered by critics to be a pure and reckless give away to the affluent lobbyist heavy wireless industry. Fiberoptic, not wireless, should be promoted by Telecom, and this appears to be just another broken promise. In addition, legacy copper landlines, which those who are electrosensitive depend on for communication, are planned to be discontinued and some are petitioning to keep them.
Other states have taken a sharper look at what 5G wireless really means for solving the digital divide, public health, environmental health, privacy and security, with the continuous steam of profitable data collection. One state, New Hampshire, formed a Commission to study 5G health and Environmental health effects. Kent Chamberlin, a member of the New Hampshire 5G Commission discusses the rationale for one of their recommendations for a 1640 foot setback from cell towers for the protection of public health. Another 5G Commission recommendation states that the State of New Hampshire should “develop RF-radiation safety limits that will protect the trees, plants, birds, insects, and pollinators.” Blake Levitt, Environmental journalist and author speaking about wireless telecommunications in a 2023 wildlife forum notes, “It is these exact RFR bands between 30 KHz and 3 GHz used in telecommunications technology that have increased during this period of accelerating wildlife disappearance. No other pollutant has increased in parallel like this.”
New wireless Federal legislation in 2023 is proposed which overrides local authority as well environmental laws as well. After a briefly looking at Federal legislation we will look at current telecom bills from California and the rest of the U.S to compare wireless proliferation bills versus public protection bills and which states opt for open access fiberoptic. We will also examine European concerns about 5G deployment.
Environmental Health Trust has a useful post and summaries of the congressional bills of concern – CONGRESSIONAL BILLS THAT WILL INCREASE WIRELESS RADIATION. Sept 2, 2023. EH Trust notes, “Pending bills are being promoted under the banners of “streamlining”, “removing barriers to entry”, and “closing the digital divide.” In fact, these bills ignore constitutional protections, conflict with existing federal law, remove states’ rights, and would perpetuate the digital divide. Increasing RF levels across the country will put people, wildlife, and the natural environment at serious risk of harm. Federal accountability and environmental safeguards are needed before allowing unfettered wireless proliferation.
In May 2023 the U.S. House of Representatives Energy and Commerce Committee passed 7 bills to “Streamline” communications facilities including on public land and national forest land. H.R. 3557, the American Broadband Deployment Act of 2023 is especially egregious as it deems granted permits within a short shot cock timeframe if not approved. Environmental harm and effects on wildlife cannot be considered in cell tower placement despite evidence that 2G, 3G, 4G and the newer more powerful 5G interrupt biological processes. The research is robust showing wireless infrastructure can harm all living organisms and may be a critical factor in the accelerating worldwide decline of insects and other species. Letters opposing H.R. 3557 are below. Note that although the bill continues to move forward, California Congressional Representative Anna Eshoo, along with all the other democratic representatives, voted against H.R. 3557.
H.B.3557: The following provisions are of concern for counties and are included in H.R. 3557: National Association of Counties (NACO) letter
- Preemption of state and local zoning authority over the placement of wireless technologies, including towers, equipment, and small cells;
- Elimination of state and local government authority to manage public rights-of-way (ROW) by collecting fair market compensation for their use and management, and limiting ROW fees to ”actual, objectively reasonable costs”;
- Enactment of shot clock rules and “deemed granted” provisions which place timelines for the review and approval of telecommunications projects;
LETTER U.S. Conference of Mayors Resolution Opposing H.R. 3557, the American Broadband Act of 2023
LETTER House Committee Advances Communications Infrastructure Preemption Bill. National League of Cities Opposing H.R.3557
LETTER HOUSE COMMITTEE ADVANCES LOCAL AUTHORITY PREEMPTION BILL FOR BROADBAND DEPLOYMENT PROJECTS. NACO. May 26, 2023.
LETTER NLC, NACO, USCM and NATOA to House Energy and Commerce Committee April 19, 2023
LETTER Letter NATOA Opposing H.R. 3557. April 18, 2023
LETTER Maryland Association of Counties. US House Committee Advances Bill to Gut Local Zoning and Community Input, Advance Corporate Interests. May 31, 2023. Opposing H.R. 3557
50 Federal Telecom Bills in 2023
Californians for Safe Technology notes that there are 50 bills being considered in the U.S. Congress now. Here a few of the most concerning:
- HR 1123 Excludes 5G explicitly from government study of cybersecurity in mobile networks Physicians for Safe Technology sent a letter to Representative Eshoo asking why there is an exclusion for 5G in the study.
- HR 1338 -SAT Streamlining Act. Requires FCC to fast-track approvals for unlimited satellite deployments, including over 60,000 applications already received.
- HR 3293 – Expediting Federal Broadband Deployment Reviews Act. Establishes a “strikeforce” to compel communications deployment on federal land
- HR 4510 – NTIA Reauthorization Act of 2023. Has many concerning provisions including Excluding 5G explicitly from government study of cybersecurity in mobile networks
- HR 3557 The American Broadband Deployment Act of 2023 – Scraps NEPA, NHPA, moratoria on wireless facilities, and local authority. Many letters from cities and municipalities opposing- see above.
- HR 3565– Spectrum Auction Reauthorization Act of 2023 Renews FCC authority to make additional frequencies available for commercial use, pushes implementation of Next Generation 9–1–1; includes strategies for coordinating cybersecurity information sharing between Federal, State, Tribal, and local government partners;
- HR 4141 Removes Environmental and Historical Reviews -NEPA, NHPA– for a wide range of wireless facilities on federal lands, etc.
- HR 4235 Pilot study to address wildfires using wireless facilities-which can create fire hazards
- HR 3216 Rural Internet Improvement Act of 2023- already became law and signed by the President. Concern with wireless expansion vs safer more reliable fiberoptic.
- HR 3964– Rural Broadband Modernization Act. Already became Law. Lowers download/upload speeds to 100/20 Mbps
For more information on the federal bills see below at the end of the post.
2023 California Telecom Bills AB 965 and AB 1065
This year there are 2 telecom industry friendly bills currently rolling their way through the California legislature, AB 965 (Carrillo) and a sister bill AB 1065 (Patterson). After the tsunami of California bills passed in recent years to “streamline” 5G cell towers on every street corner it is hard to imagine any more weakening of local government power but here we have it. More “streamlining”, less local power, less public input and more telecom power, all in the name of public safety, which has yet to be meaningfully investigated and has also been successfully challenged in the court. It appears to be a step by step, bill by bill, deregulation of the telecom industry. As the Sierra Club letter opposing SB 649 (2017) put it, “These small cell boxes could pop up anywhere: grocery stores, outside school, playgrounds, communal places, with no requirement to mitigate effects or understand potential environmental and health hazards.” Perhaps a deeper examination of broadband expansion is needed with a focus on local and global public health protection, the environment and how to meaningfully close the digital divide with more open access fiber networks. Sierra Club letter opposing SB 649 (2017)
See also EHTrust Action Alert on AB 965.
See also Wire California Testimony on AB 965
AB 965 “streamlines” the city permitting of over 50 cell towers at a time (batching), requiring a shot clock or they are deemed approved. AB 1065 will allow large grants previously destined for “future proof” fiberoptic (SB 156 -2021) to go to wireless companies so they may further transform the land into a buzzing, energy guzzling, Orwellian wireless network with known hazards, rather than continue with safer, longer lasting, less hackable, energy wise fiber, which will truly solve the digital divide, keeping people and businesses reliably connected.
The Basics of the Bills
AB 965 (Carrillo) Local government: broadband permit applications (Feb 2023) allows unlimited batched permits for cell tower placement to be approved within 90 days or they will be deemed approved. The bill notes that if the population of a city is fewer than 50,000 or a county is fewer than 150,000 then 25 or more “project sites” can be requested. For larger populations 50 or more “project sites” is considered a “reasonable limit”.
Reasons to Oppose AB 965
- Batched permits for 25 to 50 or more cell towers (or “project sites”) are far too many to be approved at one time with a very short shot clock considering complex nature of land use, historic preservation, sensitive habitat, environmental review and noise.
- Deemed approved constrains local governments and could incentivize telecom companies to pursue litigation if the shot clock runs out before a determination is made, despite amendments to the bill.
- Further removes local government authority not intended by the Telecommunications Act of 1996
- Pushes wireless 5G over faster, safer and more reliable fiberoptic to the premises
- 5G requires massive infrastructure both on land and in space with tens of thousands of satellites planned by Starlink, Amazon, Astra, Boeing, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Hughes Network, OneWeb, SpinLaunch, and Telesat
- Will rapidly increase energy demands several-fold, thus in the opposite direction of California climate mitigation goals.
- Fiberoptic uses at least 3 times LESS energy than wireless, not even considering space expansion
- Fiberoptic is much faster than wireless transmission with cell towers (Wireless 12-25 Megabits per second (Mbps) vs 5G 20-200 Mbps vs Fiberoptic 1 Gigabit to 1000 Mbps)
- Fiberoptic lasts 50 years or more in the right conditions and is cheaper to replace
- Fiberoptic offers a more stable and more reliable and is not affected by weather, distance or line of sight issues.
- Fiberoptic can be open access thus available to more homes and businesses
- Fiberoptic is already the backbone of businesses across the nation and ocean
- Wireless is much more vulnerable to security breaches and interference
- All cell towers are electrical devices and do catch fire. With more cell towers translates into more fire risk. In fire prone California academics have put an economic cost in California at $102.6 billion in 2018, not to mention the psychologic trauma and lives lost
- Proliferation of towers will also produce vast amounts of E Waste that is unsolvable to date, as companies do not manufacture with the intent to recycle precious or other metals. Another problem amplified.
- Cell towers are more costly due to frequent updates
- Proliferation of this technology, which requires precious metals, causes land degradation, mining risks, pollution and labor concerns in disadvantaged countries with long term environmental destruction and health impacts at home and abroad.
- Health and environmental regulation of cell towers by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is outdated, not backed by science and needs updating before this massive increase in infrastructure
- The DC courts in 2021 stated in a lawsuit, aimed to ignite reevaluation of the FCC’s safety guidelines to look at biological effects rather than just heat, that the FCC was “arbitrary and capricious” to NOT take into consideration environmental, reproductive, neurologic or other non-cancer biological effects of wireless radiation. The FCC has so far ignored this decision and no re-evaluation of these obsolete standards has been done.
Letters Opposing AB 965
23 Organization Sign on Letter Opposing AB 965- Including Environmental Health Trust, Center for Environmental Health, California Nurses for Environmental Justice, Mom’s Across America , The Ecological Options Network. AB 965 Sign On Senate Energy Utilities Communications
Americans for Responsible Technology has created a flyer for HR3557
AB 1065 (Patterson) Communications: California Advanced Services Fund allows public taxpayer funds dedicated by the CPUC for faster, safer and more reliable wired broadband, needed to close the digital divide, to be granted to wireless companies.
AB 1065 states, “This bill expressly authorizes a wireless broadband service provider that is otherwise eligible for grants from the California Advanced Services Fund (CASF) program to apply for and receive funding from both the CASF Broadband Infrastructure Grant Account and the CASF Federal Funding Account.”
CPUC Promotes Fiberoptic over Wireless Communications
The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) has excluded wireless projects from the FFA grants. The CPUC’s rationale is that “most funding should be reserved for superior technologies, such as projects using fiber optic cables, which reliably provide greater speed capabilities and are much more likely to meet a user’s technological needs in the long run. i.e. fiberoptic is “future proof”.” n the other hand, wireless technologies are the quickest projects to complete and cheaper thus more desired by the wireless industry.
Background- The California Advanced Services Fund (CASF) program has 2 separate subaccounts and different funding to provide grants to “telephone corporations” as defined under P.U. Code § 234 to bridge the “digital divide” in unserved and underserved areas in the state (adopted 2007).
1) Broadband Infrastructure Grant Account (IGA) is collected by the CPUC by California telephone bills which amounts to about $25 Million in 2022. The IGA is to provide funding for broadband access to 98 % of households by December 31, 2032. Wireless projects are eligible to obtain grant money
2) Federal Funding Account (FFA) The FFA was established in 2021 to fund grants for last-mile broadband infrastructure projects The CASF- FFA has been appropriated two billion ($2,000,000,000), but requires that the funds be encumbered by December 31, 2024 and spent by December 31, 2026. Under the FFA rules wireless projects are categorically ineligible to be considered for funding, regardless if that projects otherwise meets the performance criteria adopted in the rule . Notably, SB 156 set a state requirement to encumber the funds by June 30, 2023 to ensure the funds are used by the final federal deadline.
Reasons to Oppose AB 1065
- Takes funds that are intended to stimulate future proof but more expensive fiberoptic installations and allow them to be used by the wireless industry for 5G expansion
- It is a giveaway to the wireless industry and a take away from the fiberoptic industry, a more sustainable and equitable solution to the digital divide, as the state of Virginia has done.
- Pushes wireless 5G over faster, safer and more reliable fiberoptic to the premisses
- Will rapidly increase energy demands several-fold, thus in the opposite direction of California climate mitigation goals.
- Fiberoptic uses at least 3 times LESS energy than wireless.
- Fiberoptic is much faster than wireless transmission with cell towers ( Cell towers 12-25 Megabits per second -Mbps vs fiberoptic 1 Gigbit to 1000Mbps)
- Fiberoptic lasts 50 years or more in the right conditions and is cheaper to replace
- Fiberoptic offers a more stable and more reliable means of communication as it is not affected by weather, distance or line of sight issues.
- Fiberoptic can be open access thus available to more homes and businesses
- Fiberoptic is already the backbone of businesses across the nation and oceans
- Wireless is much more vulnerable to security breaches and interference
Letters Opposing AB 1065
23 Organization Sign on Letter Opposing AB 1065- Including Environmental Health Trust, Center for Environmental Health, California Nurses for Environmental Justice, Mom’s Across America , The Ecological Options Network. AB 1065 Sign-On Senate Energy, Utilities & Communications 2023
How to Submit a Letter to the California Legislature Portal
California is using a new online portal to streamline submission of support/opposition letters from individuals and organizations regarding State Assembly or Senate bills. The letters are sent to specific committees who may be assigned to review the bills. This system is effective, although you may also wish to contact your local state assembly or senate representative for contact information. Letters can be sent directly to your elected representatives and/or those on the specific committees hearing the bill. To sign up and access the portal go to the California Legislature Position Letter Portal and follow. the prompts after completing the one time registration to set up a username and password.
The Industry Push for 5G Deployment-European Union
A European Parliament report 5G Deployment: State of Play in Europe, USA and Asia notes, “In dense urban settings, 5G broadband possibly could reinvigorate their [telecom] fortunes, via increased smartphone traffic mostly feeding Internet platforms’ online services (social networking, entertainment video streaming, gaming, etc). It might also enable the MNOs to build new revenue streams in IoT applications for industrial users.”
“Given the scale of the investment needed, the mobile industry needs to convince governments of the economic and social benefits that 5G might bring and, consequently, marketing hype is widespread. For example, it suits the industry if policy makers believe that there is a race between nations to be the first to launch 5G services – and that Europe is lagging behind. The telecommunications industry and mainstream media report daily on the latest development and who is ahead in this race while, more fundamentally, there are unanswered questions over what 5G actually is, what it is for, whether it is safe, whether it offers good value for money or whether anyone will be prepared to pay for it.” 5G Deployment: State of Play in Europe, USA and Asia
What Other States are Doing to Promote Safety and Slow Down the 5G Bullet Train
New Hampshire: First to Consider 5G Health and Environmental Impacts
New Hampshire had foresight in 2019 when the state passed HB 522 to set up a formal commission to study the health and environmental effects of 5G technology. The legislation titled, “AN ACT establishing a commission to study the environmental and health effects of evolving 5G Technology”. noted that, “Fifth generation, or 5G, wireless technology is intended to greatly increase device capability and connectivity but also may pose significant risks to humans, animals, and the environment due to increased radiofrequency radiation exposure. The purpose of the study is to examine the advantages and risks associated with 5G technology, with a focus on its environmental impact and potential health effects, particularly on children, fetuses, the elderly, and those with existing health compromises.”
The New Hampshire 5G Commission Report
An independent non-partisan Commission was formed and met 13 times over the course of a year. Their report noted that FCC standards have not been updated to include new research on wireless effects on biological systems. The comprehensive Final Report of the New Hampshire Commission to Study The Environmental and Health Effects of Evolving 5G Technology published Nov 1, 2020 had 15 recommendations.
RECOMMENDATION 1- Propose a resolution of the House to the US Congress and Executive Branch to require the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) to commission an independent review of the current radiofrequency (RF) standards of the electromagnetic radiation in the 300MHz to 300GHz microwave spectrum as well as a health study to assess and recommend mitigation for the health risks associated with the use of cellular communications and data transmittal.
RECOMMENDATION 2- Require that the most appropriate agency (agencies) of the State of New Hampshire include links on its (their) website(s) that contain information and warnings about RF-radiation from all sources, but specifically from 5G small cells deployed on public rights-of-way as well as showing the proper use of cell phones to minimize exposure to RF-radiation, with adequate funding granted by the Legislature. In addition, public service announcements on radio, television, print media, and internet should periodically appear, warning of the health risks associated with radiation exposure. Of significant importance are warnings concerning the newborn and young as well as pregnant women.
RECOMMENDATION 3- Require every pole or other structure in the public rights- of-way that holds a 5G antenna be labeled indicating RF-radiation being emitted above. This label should be at eye level and legible from nine feet away.
RECOMMENDATION 4- Schools and public libraries should migrate from RF wireless connections for computers, laptops, pads, and other devices, to hard- wired or optical connections within a five-year period starting when funding becomes available.
RECOMMENDATION 5- Signal strength measurements must be collected at all wireless facilities as part of the commissioning process and as mandated by state or municipal ordinances. Measurements are also to be collected when changes are made to the system that might affect its radiation, such as changes in the software controlling it. Signal strength is to be assessed under worst-case conditions in regions surrounding the tower that either are occupied or are accessible to the public, and the results of the data collection effort is to be made available to the public via a website. In the event that the measured power for a wireless facility exceeds radiation thresholds, the municipality is empowered to immediately have the facility taken offline. The measurements are to be carried out by an independent contractor and the cost of the measurements will be borne by the site installer.
RECOMMENDATION 6- Establish new protocols for performing signal strength measurements in areas around wireless facilities to better evaluate signal characteristics known to be deleterious to human health as has been documented through peer-reviewed research efforts. Those new protocols are to take into account the impulsive nature of high-data-rate radiation that a growing body of evidence shows as having a significantly greater negative impact on human health than does continuous radiation. The protocols will also enable the summative effects of multiple radiation sources to be measured.
RECOMMENDATION 7- Require that any new wireless antennae located on a state or municipal right-of-way or on private property be set back from residences, businesses, and schools. This should be enforceable by the municipality during the permitting process unless the owners of residences, businesses, or school districts waive this restriction.
RECOMMENDATION 8- Upgrade the educational offerings by the NH Office of Professional Licensure and Certification (OPLC) for home inspectors to include RF intensity measurements.
RECOMMENDATION 9- The State of New Hampshire should begin an effort to measure RF intensities within frequency ranges throughout the state, with the aim of developing and refining a continually updated map of RF exposure levels across the state using data submitted by state-trained home inspectors.
RECOMMENDATION 10- Strongly recommend all new cell phones and all other wireless devices sold come equipped with updated software that can stop the phone from radiating when positioned against the body.
RECOMMENDATION 11- Promote and adopt a statewide position that would strongly encourage moving forward with the deployment of fiber optic cable connectivity, internal wired connections, and optical wireless to serve all commercial and public properties statewide.
RECOMMENDATION 12- Further basic science studies are needed in conjunction with the medical community outlining the characteristics of expressed clinical symptoms related to radio frequency radiation exposure.
RECOMMENDATION 13- Recommend the use of exposure warning signs to be posted in commercial and public buildings. In addition, encourage commercial and public buildings, especially healthcare facilities, to establish RF-radiation free zones where employees and visitors can seek refuge from the effects of wireless RF emissions.
RECOMMENDATION 14- The State of New Hampshire should engage agencies with appropriate scientific expertise, including ecological knowledge, to develop RF-radiation safety limits that will protect the trees, plants, birds, insects, and pollinators.
RECOMMENDATION 15- The State of New Hampshire should engage our Federal Delegation to legislate that under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) the FCC do an environmental impact statement as to the effect on New Hampshire and the country as a whole from the expansion of RF wireless technologies
Take-Aways From the New Hampshire Commission Report
Kent Chamberline, Ph.D. Produced a slide presentation Take-Aways from the New Hampshire HB522 Commission on 5G Final Report. Slide presentation. . Dr. Kent Chamberlins Slide Presentation Take Aways from the New Hampshire Commission on 5G Pittsfield Massachusetts Cell Tower July 2021
HB 1644- The first Legislative Bill from the New Hampshire Commission: HB 1644: AN ACT relative to the placement of telecommunication antennas
The first bill the commission worked on was HB 1644 (2022): AN ACT relative to the placement of telecommunication antennas and establishing a registry for residents who are experiencing biological symptoms from wireless radiation exposure. Sponsored by Rep. Abrami, Woods, Rock, Mer, Ricciardi. The bill “Requires telecommunication antennas be placed at least 1,640 feet from residentially zoned areas, parks, playgrounds, hospitals, nursing homes, day care centers, and schools. This bill also creates a registry for anyone experiencing symptoms of wireless radiation exposure.” The bill eventually died in committee but others such as Michigan have taken up the baton.
Other States Wireless Safety Bills and Policies
Summary of current bills below. Thanks to Massachusetts for Safe Technology for their information
Easton, Connecticut: 5G Cease and Desist Provision. The town of Easton became the first in the nation to pass a cease and desist order on 5G small cells until they are tested and proven biologically safe.
- Easton bans 5G technology rollout citing lack of research, testing. News 8, May 20, 2020. https://www.wtnh.com/news/technology/easton-bans-5g-technology-rollout-citing-lack-of-research-testing/
- House Resolution 145 (2019) : “ENVIRONMENT: Requests the Department of Environmental Quality in conjunction with the Louisiana Department of Health to study the effects of evolving 5G technology”. Unanimously passed. https://www.legis.la.gov/legis/BillInfo.aspx?s=19RS&b=HR145&sbi=y
- Maine Public Utilities Commission– Has had a Smart Meter Opt Out since 2011
- Maryland State Children’s Environmental Health and Protection Advisory Council (CEHPAC), as per Maryland Code Ann., Health-General §13–1506, in December 2022 released an informational factsheet on how to reduce children’s wireless exposures entitled “Guidelines to Reduce Electromagnetic Field Radiation”.
- Final analysis and policy recommendations –2016 WiFi Radiation in Schools in Maryland Final Report.
- S. 2152 (2023) Senator Moore. An Act relative to smart meters. Requires a No Fee opt out for smart meters. (1) a choice of the type of utility meters to be installed and operated on their places of residence, property or business; among the choices offered shall be the installation and ongoing operation of an “electromechanical analog meter”; and (2) the ability to retain and operate an “electromechanical analog meter” on an ongoing basis at no cost; and (3) the right to replacement of a wireless meter with a non-transmitting electromechanical meter at no cost. c) The utility companies shall be required to obtain the ratepayer’s written consent. https://malegislature.gov/Bills/193/S2152
- S.156 (2023) Sen Cyr. An Act relative to the safe use of electronic devices by children. “All mobile telephones sold or leased at a point of sale or retail establishment in the commonwealth shall clearly and conspicuously disclose, on product packaging, the following notice to consumers:- To assure safety, …” https://malegislature.gov/Bills/193/S156/Bills
- S. 316 (2023) Senator Mark. An Act relative to best management practices for wireless in schools and public institutions of higher education. “The department of elementary and secondary education shall develop best practices and guidance for the purchase and installation of wireless internet service in schools. In developing these guidelines, the department shall consider and prioritize practices that protect the health and safety of public school students and staff.” https://malegislature.gov/Bills/193/S316
- S.1044 (2023) . Senator Mark. An Act prohibiting injurious operations or offering services or products that discriminate against or injure protected classes. “All persons shall have the right to the full and equal accommodations, advantages, facilities and privileges and the right to not be physically injured by the operations, products or services of any place of public accommodation, resort or amusement whether or not the aggrieved protected party seeks access to the patronage, products or services offered by the place of accommodation, resort or amusement, subject only to the conditions and limitations established by law and applicable to all persons. This right is recognized and declared to be a civil right.” https://malegislature.gov/Bills/193/S1044
- H. 2158 Rep Farley-Bouvier. An Act recognizing EMS as a disease dangerous to the public health, requiring inclusion in MAVEN, establishing the Massachusetts EMS registry and requiring biennial reporting as part of population health trends. “1) The department shall add Electromagnetic Sensitivity (EMS) to the list of diseases dangerous to the public health in 105 CMR 300.000 and 300.100 in order to facilitate reporting and surveillance requirements within the Disease Surveillance and Case Management System (MAVEN) implemented in 105 CMR 300.050 and identification of incidences that are part of a cluster or outbreak for purposes of 105 CMR 300.134. 2) The department shall include EMS to the list of diseases possibly linked to environmental exposures in 105 CMR 300.192.” https://malegislature.gov/Bills/193/H2158
- Resolve S. 155 (2023) Sen J Cyr. Resolve relative to disclosure of radio frequency notifications. Resolved, there shall be a special commission to research the impact of electromagnetic (EMR) and radiofrequency (RFR) radiation on consumer protection, public health, and technology in the Commonwealth. https://malegislature.gov/Bills/193/S155/Bills
- House Bill 4499 (2023-2024) Rep James De Sana (Rep). AN ACT relative to -Construction: public buildings; placement of certain antennas on public school buildings, rooftops, and adjacent structures; prohibit. Amends 1937 PA 306 (MCL 388.851 – 388.855a) by adding sec. 1e.The bill introduction reads, A bill to amend 1937 PA 306, entitled “An act to promote the safety, welfare, and educational interests of the people of this state by regulating the construction, reconstruction, and remodeling of, and the installation of certain security devices at, certain public or private school buildings or additions to those buildings … ” (1) All of the following shall not be installed in a new school building, including on the rooftop or an adjacent structure to the school building, or placed within 1,500 feet of a school building: (a) A 4G or 5G main transmission antenna. (b) Equipment that is 6 cubic feet or more in size and is used to support 4G or 5G transmission. (c) An antenna used to support 4G or 5G transmission.
- HB 522 (2019): “AN ACT establishing a commission to study the environmental and health effects of evolving 5G Technology. https://legiscan.com/NH/text/HB522/id/1850440
- HB 298 (2023-2024) : An Act relative to placement of personal wireless service facilities. Rep. Lucius Parshall and Senator Denise Ricciardi. “This bill allows state and local authorities additional authority in the review of applications for personal wireless service facilities.” https://legiscan.com/NH/text/HB298/id/2629616#:~:text=New%20Hampshire%20House%20Bill%20298&text=AN%20ACT%20relative%20to%20placement%20of%20personal%20wireless%20service%20facilities.&text=This%20bill%20allows%20state%20and,for%20personal%20wireless%20service%20facilities
- Senate Bill S2587 (2023-2024). Sponsor-Kevin Parker (D-WF). Directs utilities to study the potential health risks and effects of smart meters. https://www.nysenate.gov/legislation/bills/2023/S2587
- Senate Bill S5632 (2023-2024) Pete Harckham (D-WF). Provides for consumer protection and utility meter choice. https://www.nysenate.gov/legislation/bills/2023/S5632
- Senate Bill 5586 (2023-2024) Senator Leroy Comrie. AN ACT to amend the public service law, in relation to advanced metering infrastructure. The bill would restrict the use of advanced metering infrastructure devices by electric, gas and water-works corporations; requires utilities to provide notice to customers before installation of a two-way smart meter; makes related provisions. https://assembly.state.ny.us/leg/?default_fld=&bn=S05586&term=2023&Summary=Y&Actions=Y&Text=Y&Committee%26nbspVotes=Y&Floor%26nbspVotes=Y#S05586
- Assembly Bill A7229 (2023-2024) Assemblyman Simon. Establishes a temporary commission to study the environmental and health effects of evolving 5G technology: www.nysenate.gov/legislation/bills/2023/A7229
- 2012 Central Vermont Public Service was the first to allow free opt out but with a $10 per month fee..https://emp.lbl.gov/sites/default/files/mi-optout-032212.pdf
- H.70 (2023-2024) An act relating to the siting of telecommunications facilities. Rep Dolan and Patt. https://legislature.vermont.gov/bill/status/2024/H.70 and https://legislature.vermont.gov/Documents/2024/Docs/BILLS/H-0070/H-0070%20As%20Introduced.pdf
- SB 849 (2023-2024) Sen. Amanda Chase. Public utilities; customer consent to install smart meter. https://lis.virginia.gov/cgi-bin/legp604.exe?231+sum+SB849
- SB 1029 (2023-2024) Public utilities; fiber optic broadband lines crossing railroads. Provides that if a broadband service provider, in the construction of its works, deems it necessary to cross the works of a railroad company, the broadband service provider is required to submit an application to the railroad company. https://lis.virginia.gov/cgi-bin/legp604.exe?231+sum+SB1029 Note: Virginia is a leader in fiberoptic broadband installations directly to homes and business
Thanks to Massachusetts for Safe Technology for their information.
EMF Bills in Massachusetts https://sites.google.com/site/understandingemfs/massachusetts-emf-bills-2023-24?authuser=0
EMF Bills in Other States https://sites.google.com/site/understandingemfs/bills-in-other-states?authuser=0
Europe and 5G
5G Deployment: European Parliament Considerations
“Questions remain unanswered as to what 5G actually is, what it is for, whether it has impacts on human health and environment, whether it is secure, whether it offers good value for money or whether anyone will be prepared to pay for it.5 As an alternative, according to some experts, fibre optics would be more secure, safe and offer higher speed than 5G. However, fibre optics are not wireless.” Effects of 5G wireless communication on human health. European Parliamentary Research Service Briefing. 2020.
European Commission 2018. European Commission Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks (SCHEER) 2018. SCHEER regularly updates emerging risks to public and environmental health. They have specific methods to identify hazards. In their 2018 European Commission Statement on Emerging Health and Environmental Issues lists e cigarettes, perflourinated compounds, plastics, nanoparticles and also includes virtual reality and electromagnetic radiation, especially 5G technologies. They state, “The lack of clear evidence to inform the development of exposure guidelines to 5G technology leaves open the possibility of unintended biological consequences.”
European Parliament 2019 5G Deployment: State of Play in Europe, USA and Asia
- Lightweight regulatory Framework: “Developing a lightweight regulatory framework for deployment of small area wireless access points (SAWAPs),[is] key to the densified 5G networks envisaged, [and]is essential for their easy rollout at the very large scale of base stations necessary.”
- Marketing Hype: “Given the scale of the investment needed, the mobile industry needs to convince governments of the economic and social benefits that 5G might bring and, consequently, marketing hype is widespread. For example, it suits the industry if policy makers believe that there is a race between nations to be the first to launch 5G services – and that Europe is lagging behind. The telecommunications industry and mainstream media report daily on the latest development and who is ahead in this race while, more fundamentally, there are unanswered questions over what 5G actually is, what it is for, whether it is safe, whether it offers good value for money or whether anyone will be prepared to pay for it. “
- Lobbying Governments and Consumers: “A third factor concerns the scale and who is the driving force behind the 5G campaign. The level of marketing activity is key, with intense lobbying of governments by equipment suppliers and operators – and also of the public by governments. A fourth factor is the size of the home market. It needs to be of a critical size to support the first versions of local 5G products, and also for national market testing to improve them, before global promotional launches. For instance, 50% of Huawei’s sales in 2017 were in its home market, giving its leading global position (Fildes, 2019a)”.
- Reinforced by Long Tail Supply Chain: “Since the 5G endeavour is being driven primarily by the equipment suppliers, it is not surprising that there is a significant marketing campaign underway. This industry effort is reinforced by its long tail supply chain – semiconductor components, software, managed operations and equipment suppliers – that together serve the major operators.”
European Parliament 2020 Briefing- Effects of 5G wireless communication on human health. “Questions remain unanswered as to what 5G actually is, what it is for, whether it has impacts on human health and environment, whether it is secure, whether it offers good value for money or whether anyone will be prepared to pay for it.5 As an alternative, according to some experts, fibre optics would be more secure, safe and offer higher speed than 5G. However, fibre optics are not wireless. “
European Parliament 2020 Effects of 5G wireless communication on human health. “This raises the question as to whether there is a negative impact on human health and environment from higher frequencies and billions of additional connections, which, according to research, will mean constant exposure for the whole population, including children. Whereas researchers generally consider such radio waves not to constitute a threat to the population, research to date has not addressed the constant exposure that 5G would introduce.” 5G Deployment: State of Play in Europe, USA and Asia
European Parliament 2021 Health impact of 5G. European Parliamentary Research Service. Scientific Foresight Unit (STOA) Report Conclusions:
- Cancer: FR1 (450 to 6 000 MHz): EMF are probably carcinogenic for humans, in particular related to gliomas and acoustic neuromas; FR2 (24 to 100 GHz): no adequate studies were performed on the higher frequencies;
- Reproductive developmental effects: FR1 (450 to 6 000 MHz): these frequencies clearly affect male fertility and possibly female fertility too. They may have possible adverse effects on the development of embryos, foetuses and newborns; FR2 (24 to 100 GHz): no adequate studies were performed on non-thermal effects of the higher frequencies.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
The IEEE is the world’s largest technical professional organization, and the” professional home for the engineering and technology community worldwide.” The IEEE performs its own research and is involved in computer and wireless technology product development. Some of their research is included in this section. Even in their 2015 report on 5G “Safe for Generations to Come” the authors state,
“At this time, more reports of beneficial effects than detrimental effects from low-level exposure to mmWave radiation appear to exist in the literature, but this area needs to be better understood, and the specific effects need to be demonstrated reproducibly by independent investigators before any potential non-thermal effects are to be considered in determining the regulatory limits on this regime of non ionizing radiation.” So far science is not sufficient to support the safety of this technology.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Safety Guidelines for Wireless Radiation Have Not Been Updated in Over 24 years… but a DC Court Ruled in 2021 They Should be Updated
On August 13, 2021 the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit ruled against the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the historic case EHT et al. v. the FCC regarding their failure to reevaluate the safety standards for wireless electromagnetic radiation with regards to health and environmental impacts other than cancer. The lawsuit was filed in response to the December 2019 decision by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to retain its 1996 safety limits for human exposure to wireless radiation. 11,000 pages of of scientific studies and evidence were submitted to the court indicating harm from wireless radiation. The judge called the FCC decision not to reevaluate their safety guidelines “arbitrary and capricious.”
The court found the FCC ignored numerous organizations, scientists and medical doctors who called on them to update safety limits. The court noted that the FCC failed to address *Impacts of long-term wireless exposure, impacts to children, the testimony of people injured by wireless radiation, impacts to wildlife and the environment, impacts to the developing brain and reproduction.
- Opening Brief of Petitioners EH Trust et al vs FCC . https://ehtrust.org/wp-content/uploads/PACER-Petitioners-Final-Joint-Opening-Brief.pdf
7 Federal Bills in 2023 to Streamline and Remove Regulator Barriers to State and Local Governments to Fast Track Communications Facilities
The Federal Energy and Commerce Committee recently passed 7 bills designed to streamline broadband permitting to expedite deployment and reauthorize the Federal Communications Commission’s Spectrum Auction Authority, for the stated goal of closing the digital divide. They will continue to move forward through the legislative process. Broadband could mean fiberoptic, coaxial cable but also wireless cell towers. While building infrastructure is emphasized other have testified in 2020 that closing the digital divide is a matter of poverty i.e. the inability of those with low income to afford expensive devices and connection, as well as education on the of technology . In addition Digital Redlining still exists. Again health, safety and environmental issues are not considered. Nor is any monitoring , research or regulation proposed for public health or safety.
E&C Advances Seven Bills to Close the Digital Divide and Improve American Leadership in Wireless Communications. May 24, 2023. https://energycommerce.house.gov/posts/e-and-c-advances-seven-bills-to-close-the-digital-divide-and-improve-american-leadership-in-wireless-communications
H.R. 3309 , the Standard Fees to Expedite Evaluation and Streamlining Act or the Standard FEES Act, sponsored by Reps. Gary Palmer and Patrick Ryan, was reported favorably, without amendment, to the House by a vote of 50-0. “to establish a uniform fee schedule applicable to the processing of forms for the consideration of applications for the placement of communications facilities on certain buildings and other property owned by the Federal Government, and for other purposes.” https://www.congress.gov/bill/118th-congress/house-bill/3309/text
H.R. 3293, the Expediting Federal Broadband Deployment Reviews Act, sponsored by Reps. Jeff Duncan and Angie Craig, was reported favorably, without amendment, to the House by a vote of 51-0. “To require the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information to establish an interagency strike force to ensure that certain Federal land management agencies, including the organizational units of such agencies, prioritize the review of requests for communications use authorizations, and for other purposes.” https://www.congress.gov/bill/118th-congress/house-bill/3293/text
H.R. 3299, the Deploying Infrastructure with Greater Internet Transactions and Legacy Applications Act or DIGITAL Applications Act, sponsored by Reps. Kat Cammack and Doris Matsui, was reported favorably, without amendment, to the House by a vote of 51-0. “To require the Department of the Interior and the Department of Agriculture to establish online portals to accept, process, and dispose of certain Form 299s, and for other purposes…. for the primary purpose of authorizing the occupancy and use of such covered land for communications use. Covered Land- public lands; and National Forest System land. https://www.congress.gov/bill/118th-congress/house-bill/3299/text
H.R. 3283, the Facilitating the Deployment of Infrastructure with Greater Internet Transactions and Legacy Applications Act or Facilitating DIGITAL Applications Act, sponsored by Reps. Mariannette Miller-Meeks and Debbie Dingell, was reported favorably, without amendment, to the House by a vote of 51-0.” To require the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information to report to Congress on any barriers to establishing online portals to accept, process, and dispose of certain Form 299s, and for other purposes….for the primary purpose of authorizing the occupancy and use of such covered land for communications use. Covered Land- public lands; and National Forest System land. RELEVANT COVERED DEPARTMENT.—…)A_the Secretary of the Interior, the Department of the Interior; and (B) with respect to the Secretary of Agriculture, the Department of Agriculture. https://www.congress.gov/bill/118th-congress/house-bill/3283/text
H.R. 3343. the Federal Broadband Deployment Tracking Act, sponsored by Reps. August Pfluger and Darren Soto, was reported favorably, without amendment, to the House by a vote of 51-0. To require the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information to submit to Congress a plan for the Assistant Secretary to track the acceptance, processing, and disposal of certain Form 299s, and for other purposes…. for the primary purpose of authorizing the occupancy and use of such covered land for communications use. Covered Land- public lands; and National Forest System land. Public Land means land under the management of (A)The Bureau of Land Management; (B) the National Park Service; (C) the United States Fish and Wildlife Service; or (D) the Bureau of Reclamation. https://www.congress.gov/bill/118th-congress/house-bill/3343/text
H.R. 3565, the Spectrum Auction Reauthorization Act of 2023, sponsored by Reps. Cathy McMorris Rodgers and Frank Pallone, Jr., was reported favorably, as amended, to the House by a vote of 50-0. To authorize the Federal Communications Commission to use a system of competitive bidding to grant a license or a permit for use of electromagnetic spectrum and to direct proceeds from such a system of competitive bidding for communications and technology initiatives, and for other purposes. … REPORT TO SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.—For purposes of paragraph (2)(A), the Secretary of Defense, in coordination with the heads of other relevant Federal agencies who receive funds under subparagraph (D) of this paragraph, shall, not later than September 30, 2023, report to the Secretary of Commerce the findings of the planning activities described in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, and detail frequencies in the covered band for identification by the Secretary of Commerce under paragraph (2).” https://www.congress.gov/bill/118th-congress/house-bill/3565/text
H.R. 3557, the American Broadband Deployment Act of 2023, sponsored by Rep. Buddy Carter, Nathaniel Moran, and Neal Dunn, was reported favorably, as amended, to the House by a vote of 27-23. “To streamline Federal, State, and local permitting and regulatory reviews to expedite the deployment of communications facilities, and for other purposes…
DEEMED GRANTED. IN GENERAL.—If a State or local government or instrumentality thereof fails to take final action to grant or deny a request within the applicable timeframe under subclause (I) of clause (iii), the request shall be deemed granted on the date on which the government or instrumentality receives a written notice of the failure from the requesting party.
RULE OF CONSTRUCTION.—In the case of a request that is deemed granted under subclause (I), the placement, construction, or modification requested in the request shall be considered to be authorized, without any further action by the government or instrumentality, beginning on the date on which the request is deemed granted under such subclause….
“(vi) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF RADIO FREQUENCY EMISSIONS.—No State or local government or instrumentality thereof may regulate the operation, placement, construction, or modification of personal wireless service facilities on the basis of the environmental effects of radio frequency emissions to the extent that such facilities or structures comply with the Commission’s regulations concerning such emissions.
“(i) JUDICIAL REVIEW.—Any person adversely affected by any final action or failure to act by a State or local government or any instrumentality thereof that is inconsistent with this paragraph may, within 30 days after the action or failure to act, commence an action in any court of competent jurisdiction, which shall hear and decide the action on an expedited basis.
“SEC. 253. REMOVAL OF BARRIERS TO ENTRY. “(a) In General.—No State or local statute or regulation, or other State or local legal requirement, may prohibit or have the effect of prohibiting the ability of any entity to provide or enhance the provision of any interstate or intrastate telecommunications service. https://www.congress.gov/bill/118th-congress/house-bill/3557
Privacy Concerns Added to the Mix of Concerns
“What’s wrong with this? Corporate America will be collecting data on us, using it to manipulate us, and selling it to the highest bidders, often without our permission. The amount of data that they will be collecting on us with 5G is astronomical. Privacy is a huge 5G issue as far as I’m concerned. Besides that, I don’t see any need in my life for the Internet of things. I think the Internet of things is a hackers dream.” Arizona State Representative Pamela Powers Hannley. 2020 , Is 5G Risky Business?
California and U.S. Broadband
Broadband Implementation for California. CPUC. 2021. https://www.cpuc.ca.gov/industries-and-topics/internet-and-phone/broadband-implementation-for-california
California Advanced Services Fund (CASF). https://www.cpuc.ca.gov/industries-and-topics/internet-and-phone/california-advanced-services-fund
E&C Advances Seven Bills to Close the Digital Divide and Improve American Leadership in Wireless Communications. May 24, 2023. https://energycommerce.house.gov/posts/e-and-c-advances-seven-bills-to-close-the-digital-divide-and-improve-american-leadership-in-wireless-communications
TESTIMONY OF ANGELA SIEFER Executive Director NATIONAL DIGITAL INCLUSION ALLIANCE Before the United States House of Representatives Subcommittee on Communications and Technology Committee on Energy and Commerce On “Empowering and Connecting Communities Through Digital Equity and Internet Adoption”, Washington DC January 29, 2020 , https://www.congress.gov/116/meeting/house/110416/witnesses/HHRG-116-IF16-Wstate-SieferA-20200129.pdf
The broadband gap’s dirty secret: Redlining still exists in digital form. Communities that couldn’t get mortgage loans in the 1940s are the same areas without fast home internet service today. There’s no easy fix. CNET. June 28, 2021.https://www.cnet.com/home/internet/features/the-broadband-gaps-dirty-secret-redlining-still-exists-in-digital-form/
5G Deployment European Parliament
Council of Europe. Parliamentary Assembly. 2011. Resolution 1815. The potential dangers of electromagnetic fields and their effect on the environment. 2011. http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=17994
European Commission Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks (SCHEER) 2018. https://mdsafetech.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/scheer-report-emerging-concerns-2018-russell-mentioned.pdf
European Parliament 2019. 5G Deployment: State of Play in Europe, USA and Asia. Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies. April 2019. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/IDAN/2019/631060/IPOL_IDA(2019)631060_EN.pdf?fbclid=IwAR2qjkIH4I-kS-gZ6elTDCBSDQHiull298iFkNKCQw6-F9Ns5uyemkLA0bo
European Parliament 2020. Effects of 5G wireless communication on human health. European Parliamentary Research Service Briefing. March 2020. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2020/646172/EPRS_BRI(2020)646172_EN.pdf?fbclid=IwAR3cD0TDOqGHpOmCWPnANN-Y6RBaa0eoQ4ZN0nuUwpVaLL8MIDtt6aKtiYM
European Parliament 2021– Health impact of 5. Current state of knowledge of 5G-related carcinogenic and reproductive/developmental hazards as they emerge from epidemiological studies and in vivo experimental studies . 2021. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2021/690012/EPRS_STU(2021)690012_EN.pdf Video- Video of the entire 2021 session. https://multimedia.europarl.europa.eu/en/event_20210531-1000-SPECIAL-STOA_vd?start=20210531080934&end=20210531095852
European Parliament Workshops on 5G. 2021. https://www.saferemr.com/2020/12/european-parliament-workshop-on-5g.html
The European Union prioritises economics over health in the rollout of radiofrequency technologies. Nyberg NR et al. Sept 22, 2022. https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/reveh-2022-0106/html?lang=en
EU 5G Appeal. http://www.5gappeal.eu
Alabi O et al. (2021) Environmental contamination and public health effects of electronic waste: an overview. Health Sci Eng. 2021 Apr 21;19(1):1209-1227. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34150306/
Global e-waste surging: up 21 per cent in 5 years. World Health Organization. Released from Toronto, Bonn, Geneva and Vienna, 28 June 2020. https://www.who.int/news/item/28-06-2020-global-e-waste-surging-up-21-per-cent-in-5-years
Fiberoptic vs Wireless
Broadband Factors for Last-Mile Connectivity Prepared for the California Public Utilities Commission December 2021. Last Mile Connectivity Report
WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FIBER VS. DSL VS. WIFI?. Central Texas Telecommunications. https://www.centex.net/whats-the-difference-between-fiber-vs-dsl-vs-wifi/
Fiber vs. Cable vs. Wireless https://nwcitizen.com/entry/fiber-vs-cable-vs-wireless
Re-Inventing Wires: The Future of Landlines and Networks. Timothy Schoechle, PhD. 2015 https://electromagnetichealth.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/ReInventing-Wires-1-25-18.pdf
“Fiber: The Coming Tech Revolution — and Why America Might Miss It” . Susan Crawford. 2019.https://hls.harvard.edu/bibliography/fiber-the-coming-tech-revolution-and-why-america-might-miss-it/
“Fiber: The Coming Tech Revolution — and Why America Might Miss It” https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330223314_Fiber_The_Coming_Tech_Revolution-and_Why_America_Might_Miss_It
Firefighters Fighting Fires… and Now Cell Towers. PST. Sept 28, 2019. https://mdsafetech.org/2019/09/28/firefighters-fighting-fires-and-now-cell-towers/
CELL TOWER SAFETY RISKS FIRES AND COLLAPSE. EHTrust. https://ehtrust.org/cell-tower-safety-risks-fires-and-collapse/
Catastrophic costs of California wildfires. The Ecologist. December 2020. https://theecologist.org/2020/dec/07/catastrophic-costs-california-wildfires
The true cost of wildfire: It is more than simply dollars spent to knock down the flames. Wildfire Today. Oct 8, 2020. https://wildfiretoday.com/2020/10/08/the-true-cost-of-wildfire-2/
Five Alarms: Assessing the Vulnerability of US Cellular Communication Infrastructure to Wildfires. Anderson et al. ICM ’20: Proceedings of the ACM Internet Measurement Conference. October 2020. https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3419394.3423663
Cellular networks vulnerable to wildfires across U.S. University of Wisconsin News. Oct 27, 2020. https://news.wisc.edu/cellular-networks-vulnerable-to-wildfires-across-u-s/
Evidence for a health risk by RF on humans living around mobile phone base stations: from radiofrequency sickness to cancer.Alfonso Balmori. Environmental Research. 2022 Nov;214(Pt 2):113851. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35843283/
Case Report: The Microwave Syndrome after Installation of 5G Emphasizes the Need for Protection from Radiofrequency Radiation. Hardell L and Nilsson M. Annals of Case Reports. 8: 1112. 10 January 2023. https://www.gavinpublishers.com/assets/articles_pdf/Case-Report-The-Microwave-Syndrome-after–Installation-of-5G-Emphasizes-the-Need-for–Protection-from-Radiofrequency-Radiation.pdf
On the Clear Evidence of the Risks to Children from Non-Ionizing Radio Frequency Radiation: The Case of Digital Technologies in the Home, Classroom and Society. Professor Tom Butler. University of Cork, Ireland. May 2020. https://www.radiationresearch.org/articles/on-the-clear-evidence-of-the-risks-to-children-from-non-ionizing-radio-frequency-radiation-the-case-of-digital-technologies-in-the-home-classroom-and-society/ or 5G Professor Tom Butler On the Clear Evidence of the Risks to Children from Non-Ionizing Radio Frequency Radiation or here
Towards 5G communication systems: Are there health implications? Di Ciaula A.,International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, Volume 221, Issue 3, pp. 367-375, April 2018. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1438463917308143?via%3Dihub
5 G wireless telecommunications expansion: Public health and environmental implications. Russell C.,Environmental Research, Volume 165, pp. 484-495, 2018. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0013935118300161
5G Wireless Communication and Health Effects – A Pragmatic Review Based on Available Studies Regarding 6 to 100 GHz. Simko M. and Mattsson M.-O. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(18), September 2019. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6765906/
Effects of 5G wireless communication on human health. European Parliamentary Research Service Briefing. March 2020. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2020/646172/EPRS_BRI(2020)646172_EN.pdf?fbclid=IwAR3cD0TDOqGHpOmCWPnANN-Y6RBaa0eoQ4ZN0nuUwpVaLL8MIDtt6aKtiYM
We Have No Reason to Believe 5G Is Safe.The technology is coming, but contrary to what some people say, there could be health risks. (2019) Scientific American. Joel M. Moskowitz. Oct 17, 2019. https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/we-have-no-reason-to-believe-5g-is-safe/
500 Meter buffer recommended around schools, hospitals and homes. “Limiting liability with positioning to minimize negative health effects of cellular phone towers.” (2019) Pearce M. Environmental Research, Nov 2019; https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0013935119306425
Planetary electromagnetic pollution: It is time to assess its impact.(2018) Bandara P and Carpenter D. The Lancet. Planetary Health. Vol 2. Issue 12. Dec 1, 2018. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanplh/article/PIIS2542-5196(18)30221-3/fulltext
5G Wireless Technology: Is 5G Harmful to Our Health? Nov 10, 2020.EMR Safety. Joel Moskowitz, PhD. https://www.saferemr.com/2017/09/5g-wireless-technology-is-5g-harmful-to.html
A 5G Wireless Future: Will it Give us a Smart Nation or Contribute to an Unhealthy One? SCCMA Bulletin Jan/Feb 2017. Cindy Russell, MD. https://mdsafetech.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/5gwireless-future-sccma-bulletin-6_4_17-new.pdf
Wireless Silent Spring. SCCMA Bulletin Oct 2018. Cindy Russell, MD. https://mdsafetech.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/wireless-silentspring_-sccma-oct-2-2018.pdf
Wildlife, Wireless, Electromagnetic Fields and Environmental Effects. Science, Legal and Policy Webinar on Wildlife and Wireless Radiation: The Ecosystem and Environmental Impacts of Cell Towers and Electromagnetic Radiation. EHTrust. July 15, 2023. Speakers include Albert M. Manville II PhD., a retired senior wildlife biologist at the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service; B. Blake Levitt, an award-winning medical/science journalist; Daniel Favre, PhD., Wildlife Biologist; Dr. Cornelia Waldmann-Selsam discusses impact of radiofrequency radiation to trees, Erica Rosenberg, retired Assistant Chief of the Competition and Infrastructure Policy Division at the Federal Communications Commission; Devra Davis PhD., MPH, President of Environmental Health Trust https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gOt0sNWN_VM&t=2s
New Hampshire Commission on 5G
New Hampshire-Final Report on Commission to Study the Environmental and Health Effects of Evolving 5G Technology. https://www.gencourt.state.nh.us/statstudcomm/committees/1474/reports/5G%20final%20report.pdf
New Hampshire- HB 522 2019 : AN ACT establishing a commission to study the environmental and health effects of evolving 5G Technology. https://legiscan.com/NH/text/HB522/id/1850440
AT&T tries to block Starlink/T-Mobile plan for satellite-to-phone service
AT&T and rural telcos say Starlink-fueled phone service would cause interference 5/19/23. .https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2023/05/att-tries-to-block-starlink-t-mobile-plan-for-satellite-to-phone-service/
FCC grants partial approval for Starlink second-generation constellation. Dec 2, 2022. Space News. https://spacenews.com/fcc-grants-partial-approval-for-starlink-second-generation-constellation/
In race to provide internet from space, companies ask FCC for about 38,000 new broadband satellites. https://www.cnbc.com/2021/11/05/space-companies-ask-fcc-to-approve-38000-broadband-satellites.html
EH Trust vs FCC
Opening Brief of Petitioners EH Trust et al vs FCC . https://ehtrust.org/wp-content/uploads/PACER-Petitioners-Final-Joint-Opening-Brief.pdf
Petitioners filed 11,000 pages of evidence in the case EH Trust et al vs FCC. https://ehtrust.org/environmental-health-trust-et-al-v-fcc-key-documents/
EHT WINS IN HISTORIC DECISION, FEDERAL COURT ORDERS FCC TO EXPLAIN WHY IT IGNORED SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE SHOWING HARM FROM WIRELESS RADIATION. Aug 16, 2021. EHTrust
Landmark Lawsuit Successful Against FCC for Failing to Reevaluate 5G and Wireless Safety. Sept 2020. PST. https://mdsafetech.org/2020/09/23/landmark-lawsuit-filed-against-fcc-for-failing-to-reevaluate-5g-and-wireless-safety/
Captured Agency: How the Federal Communications Commission is Dominated by the Industries it Presumably Regulates. Harvard Ethics Fellow Norm Alster. 2015. https://ethics.harvard.edu/files/center-for-ethics/files/capturedagency_alster.pdf