The Office of Inspector General in the U.S. Department of the Interior conducted a National Park Service audit of cell towers in response to complaints about illegal cell towers in Yosemite National Park, completed July 19, 2019. Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER) prompted this inquiry. Their Press Release from July 30, 2019 is titled CELL TOWER MIASMA PERVADES NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM
The audit, titled “The NPS Needs To Improve Management of Commercial Cellular Facilities’ Right-of-Way Permits and Revenues”, found “that the NPS was not properly collecting and accounting for revenues for commercial ROW permits, including the collection of land use fees and cost recovery. Overall, the management of the commercial ROW program and the implementation of governing NPS policy need improvement.”
Systemic National Park Service Noncompliance and Lack of Oversight
The report confirmed those problems and determined they were systemwide. For example, “at Grand Teton National Park (GRTE) and YOSE, land use fees and cost recovery were deposited into the same account as other special use permit revenues. Both GRTE and YOSE did not have support documentation for the cost recovery retained at the parks for commercial ROW permits.”
Conclusions to the Report:
- Widespread noncompliance with NPS rules requiring reviews of potential adverse impacts on environmental and cultural resources;
- Failure to even bill for, let alone collect, revenue owed to NPS by telecoms; and
- Lack of oversight to the extent that parks cannot accurately report what they have permitted and nationally the NPS does not inventory what cell facilities have been built.
Six Recommendations for Improvements at National Park Service
We recommend that the NPS:
- Prepare and issue bills for collection to all ROW permit holders for the collection of land use fees to ensure that accurate and timely payments are receive.
- Determine the appropriateness of unpermitted commercial cellular facilities on NPS land; if any are determined to be inappropriate, take the necessary steps to either issue ROW permits or remove the facilities
- Document all employee labor and related costs associated with individual ROW permits to ensure the correct cost recovery amounts are retained at the park
- Develop policy to ensure that the commercial cellular facility inventory data are current, complete, accurate, and updated on a timely basis
- Complete the inventory of cellular facilities in parks
- Develop an action plan to ensure compliance with RM-53; the plan should include the NPS conducting annual or periodic program or internal control reviews of the regional office and park ROW operations to ensure compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and policies
Cell Towers and Harmful Effects on the Environment: No discussion Allowed
Unfortunately due to the Telecommunications Act of 1996, there can be no consideration for denial based on environmental effects of cell towers, despite scientific evidence to the contrary. This is especially concerning with the rollout of a tsunami of cell antennas with 5G and IoT technology as well as the growing scientific evidence of harm from Radiofrequency radiation emitted from wireless devices and cell towers.
From PST Environment and Wildlife Effects
Reviews on Wildlife
Balmori (2015) notes in his latest review “Current evidence indicates that exposure at levels that are found in the environment (in urban areas and near base stations) may particularly alter the receptor organs to orient in the magnetic field of the earth. These results could have important implications for migratory birds and insects, especially in urban areas, but could also apply to birds and insects in natural and protected areas where there are powerful base station emitters of radio frequencies. Anthropogenic Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields as an Emerging Threat to Wildlife Orientation. Alfonso Balmori. Science of The Total Environment. 518-519:58-60 · July 2015. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273121908_Anthropogenic_Radiofrequency_Electromagnetic_Fields_as_an_Emerging_Threat_to_Wildlife_Orientation
The Cucurachi Review (2012) of 113 peer-reviewed publications revealed, “In about two thirds of the reviewed studies ecological effects of RF-EMF was reported at high as well as at low dosages. The very low dosages are compatible with real field situations, and could be found under environmental conditions.” A review of the ecological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Environment International. Cucurachi et al. 51C:116-140 · December 2012. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233974663_A_review_of_the_ecological_effects_of_radiofrequency_electromagnetic_fields_RF-EMF
Panagopoulos (2013) explains in his review of experimental data, how living organisms are in harmony with terrestrial and magnetic fields, which effect their cellular processes and even circadian rhythms. Interference of this delicate interaction with human wireless technology can adversely affect the health and well-being of ecosystems. MOBILE TELEPHONY RADIATION EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGANISMS. Dimitris J. Panagopoulos and Lukas H. Margaritas.Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, University of Athens, Greece.
The Saravanamuttu Review (2013) found that harm to the environment is demonstrated but there are no long term studies to support safety of this technology. Sivani and Sudarsanam state, “Based on current available literature, it is justified to conclude that RF-EMF radiation exposure can change neurotransmitter functions, blood-brain barrier, morphology, electrophysiology, cellular metabolism, calcium efflux, and gene and protein expression in certain types of cells even at lower intensities.” They note that these studies are important to identify the frequencies, intensities and durations that are safer, enabling the use of wireless technology while ensuring the health and sustainability of the environment. Impacts of radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) from cell phone towers and wireless devices on biosystem and ecosystem—A review. Biology and Medicine. 4(4):202-216 · January 2013. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258521207_Impacts_of_radio-frequency_electromagnetic_field_RF-EMF_from_cell_phone_towers_and_wireless_devices_on_biosystem_and_ecosystem-A_review
A 2010 review paper from the Ministry of Environment and Forests in India reviewed all available peer reviewed research on the impacts of wireless radiofrequency (RF) on living organisms, including birds and bees, plants, animals and humans. Of 919 articles collected 593 showed adverse impacts. In each category of organism, over 60% of the research indicated harm to that biological species. The report looked at 5 mandates * Review literature * Assess impacts of increasing cell towers * Suggest mitigation of effects * Formulate regulatory guidelines for installation of cell towers * Identify research gaps. Report on Possible Impacts of Communication Towers on Wildlife Including Birds and Bees. Ministry of Environment and Forest. India. (2010) http://www.moef.nic.in/downloads/public-information/final_mobile_towers_report.pdf
Blake Levitt and Henry Lai (2010) provide an articulate and thorough review of cell towers and the radiation they emit. This is a classic paper that clearly explains and defines terms used in the literature, providing a foundation of knowledge as well as a review of the literature. Biological effects from exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell tower base stations and other antenna arrays.(2010) Page 374- Biological Effects at Low intensity) Blake Levitt, Henry Lai. Environmental Reviews, 2010, 18(NA): 369-395. http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/full/10.1139/A10-018#.WYUlOHeZNo4
Balmori Review on the Effects of Cell Towers on Wildlife (2009) first notes, “Life has evolved under the influence of two omnipresent forces: gravity and electromagnetism. It should be expected that both play important roles in the functional activities of organisms.” He provides a detailed review of how long term emissions from cell towers (phone masts) causes a general decline in the health of plants and animals in nearby habitats. This could be through a reduction of natural health defenses and reproductive failure. He cites many references in this paper which is a well written critical resource for those in public health, the environmental community as well as legislative members who wish to understand this issue. Electromagnetic Pollution From Phone Masts. Effects on Wildlife. Alfonso Balmori. Pathophysiology. Volume 16, Issues 2-3, August 2009 , Pages 191-199 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0928468009000030 or full article on ResearchGate at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/24180316_Electromagnetic_pollution_from_phone_masts_Effects_on_wildlife
- The NPS Needs To Improve Management of Commercial Cellular Facilities’ Right-of-Way Permits and Revenues” Full Report Link
- The NPS Needs To Improve Management of Commercial Cellular Facilities’ Right-of-Way Permits and Revenues” PDF The NPS Needs to Improve Management of Commercial Cellular Facilities Right-of-Way Permits and Revenues PDF
- PST Environmental and Wildlife Effects of Wireless Communications. Environment and Wildlife Effects
- Wireless Silent Spring. Santa Clara County Medical Association Bulletin October 2, 2108. _Wireless Silent Spring
- A 5G Wireless Future. Santa Clara county Medical Association Bulletin. June 2017. A 5G Wireless Future: Will it Give Us a Smart Nation or Contribute to an Unhealthy One?
- PST 5G Telecommunications Science
- PST 5G “Mobile” Communications