5th Generation (5G) Telecommunications Uses Gigahertz (GHz) Millimeter Sized Wavelengths
The Telecommunications Industry promises fast, ubiquitous and unlimited mobile internet access with the next generation of 5G technologies by 2020, along with removal of landlines. This network is designed to provide faster downloads, streaming movies, wireless virtual reality, in addition to being the platform for the Internet of Things, whereby all our household devices are connected wirelessly for remote control. While there may be limited medical applications, 5G will mainly be used for more immersive entertainment with much greater public exposure, especially in “Smart Cities”. Military uses have also been discussed. This 5th generation (5G) system uses high frequency electromagnetic radiation with Gigahertz (GHz) wavelengths in the millimeter range. These high frequency tiny wavelengths penetrate only the outer layer of the skin, unlike 2G, 3G and 4G technology which passes through the body. Major health concerns with exposure to 5G are to skin, eye and adverse systemic metabolic signaling through skin sensors, as well as heat effects. Some in Congress have seriously questioned the lack of independent research on 5G safety.
Old and New Research on Millimeter Waves is Alarming
New research by Neufeld and Kuster 2018 highlights the significant tissue heating generated by 5G technology with rapid short bursts of data transfer on a device, prompting them to call for reevaluation of thermal safety standards (let alone biological standards). The researchers state, “The results also show that the peak-to-average ratio of 1,000 tolerated by the International Council on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines may lead to permanent tissue damage after even short exposures, highlighting the importance of revisiting existing exposure guidelines.” In addition, there is convincing emerging scientific evidence causing great concern for the environment, with harm to mammals, insects and bacteria, prompting scientists around the world to call for a moratorium on 5G. This 5G technology is complex, likely to be costly, accompanied by privacy concerns and will also consume significant amounts of energy, contrary to global climate goals. Despite this scientific evidence, the FCC is accelerating the deployment of wireless antenna infrastructure by limiting local governments ability to refuse these towers, limiting charging fees and shortening the shot clock for approval, effectively blocking the power of local authorities.
An older Russian paper, “Biological Effects of Millimeter Wavelengths” by Zalyubovskaya (1977) was declassified by the CIA in 2012. This paper disturbingly describes the research on both humans and animals showing a myriad of adverse effects of millimeter wavelengths. The author notes that millimeter wave technology had been used for years without any studies on biological effects. The researchers found that “millimeter waves caused changes in the body manifested in structural alterations in the skin and internal organs, qualitative and quantitative changes in the blood and bone marrow composition, and changes in the conditioned reflex activity, tissue respiration…and nuclear metabolism. The degree of unfavorable effect of millimeter waves depended the duration of radiation and individual characteristics of the organism.” The author confirmed that millimeter waves do not penetrate skin but act on nerve receptors in the skin to cause such diverse biological and metabolic effects as a reduction in hemoglobin and erythrocytes, higher blood cortisol levels, adrenal stimulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and suppression of the central nervous system with notable changes in liver, kidneys, heart and brain. The declassified paper is Biological Effects of Millimeter Wavelengths. Zalyubovskaya-Declassified by CIA -1977
The 2018 European Commission Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks (SCHEER) Lists 5G Electromagnetic Radiation
SCHEER regularly updates emerging risks to public and environmental health. In their 2018 European Commission Statement on Emerging Health and Environmental Issues lists e cigarettes, perflourinated compounds, plastics, nanoparticles and also includes virtual reality and electromagnetic radiation, especially 5G technologies. They state “The lack of clear evidence to inform the development of exposure guidelines to 5G technology leaves open the possibility of unintended biological consequences.” https://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/scheer_en or SCHEER Report Emerging Concerns 2018-
No Testing, No Regulation, No Safety Guidelines
There has been no premarket testing of this technology or the mix of frequencies we will be exposed to. There are no protective regulations to assure monitoring of radiation levels for each antenna or a registry to document reported health effects. The Departments of Public Health are not informed about any potential health or environmental effects and have not given any guidance with regards to non-ionizing wireless radiation safety except to tell people to reduce their current exposure (California Department of Public Health). Effects on our most vulnerable populations i.e. children, pregnant women, the elderly and those with chronic diseases, have not been taken into account.
Fiberoptic Networks provide even faster broadband speeds, are safer, more cybersecure, and more reliable in rural areas, however, telecommunications companies are abandoning these to push for a cheaper alternative, wireless antenna, which emit biologically harmful radio frequencies. Critical secure and sophisticated landlines are also planned for removal by AT&T by 2020 to further force customers into wireless systems. Some cities are moving to community owned fiberoptic networks with Municipal Open Fiber Networks,
5G Mobile Telecommunications to Use a Blanket of Fixed Antennas Networks
The 5G deployment proposes to add frequencies in the microwave spectrum in the low- (0.6 GHz – 3.7 GHz), mid- (3.7GHz – 24 GHz), and high-band frequencies (24 GHz and higher) for faster communications. They call this mobile communication, however, because these wavelengths travel only short distances, this system will need to use a dense network of fixed antennas outdoors every 300 meters as well as indoor systems, as the gigahertz radiation is blocked by buildings. This radiation, like the 2G, 3G, 4G telecommunications systems, has not had pre market testing for long term health effects despite the fact that people will be exposed continuously to this microwave radiation. Environmental effects have also been ignored. Published scientific literature is listed below. See also PST 5G “Mobile” Communications
Risks from 5G include:
- Damage to the eyes- cataracts, retina
- Immune system disruption
- Metabolic disruption
- Damage to sperm
- Skin damage
- Collapse of insect populations, the base of food for birds and bats
- Rise in bacterial resistance and bacterial shifts
- Damage to plants and trees
5G Short Wavelengths Mixed With Longer 2G, 3G and 4G:
5G high frequency wavelengths are short and in the millimeter range (fractions of an inch). This is in contrast to the 2G, 3G and 4G telecommunications systems which use longer centimeter-length (inches to feet) microwave frequencies in the megahertz (MHz) range. Industry states the deployment of 5G will increase productivity, boost the economy and give us a sense of well-being. In order to accomplish this, they will not just be using just 5G short wavelengths to transmit data, but will integrate 5G with current 3G and 4G systems, with plans to add much of the remaining spectrum in the microwave frequencies. Industry states this will operate fluidly in a highly dense cell antenna arrangement throughout neighborhoods and cities. This cell antenna network will accommodate multiple types of access technologies, multi-layer networks, multiple types of devices, multiple types of user interactions including self-driving automobiles and massive industrial automation.
Increase in Frequencies With Constant Exposure:
This means that the human population as well as pets and other species will be exposed to an even larger mix of frequencies continuously inside and outside the home. Industry is fast-tracking placement of cell antennas for this new technology by promoting new legislation on a local, state and federal level. This will preempt local authority to place antenna on potentially every public utility pole and preexisting cell tower structure.
More Questions than Answers: Health and Environmental Effects:
What are the public health implications of this novel technology? What research supports its safety? What research indicates harmful effects? What are the implications for the unsolved privacy and security issues that are also related to health as products are being developed to interface with the medical community and patients? What are the contributions to global climate change? What are the societal and mental health effects in a population increasingly addicted to this technology and disconnected with each other? Patients and physicians are becoming increasingly aware of these related issues and concerned about the long term consequences of our convenient yet problematic wireless technologies. There appear to be more questions than answers.
Millimeter Wavelengths Hazards: Cell Membranes, Internal Signalling, Skin Changes,
Millimeter wavelengths (MMW) have been used in non-invasive complementary medicine in many Eastern European countries, typically to therapeutically heat the tissues over a short time frame. Millimeter wavelengths (at high intensity) have also been used in military applications in active denial systems (non-lethal crowd control weapons). Some research on non-thermal effects has shown that millimeter wavelengths target cell membranes and have adverse biological effects as well as clinical effects such as cataracts, immune system alterations and physiological effects on the heart and blood pressure. Betzalal et al (2018) have demonstrated that the sweat glands which are coiled structures in the upper layers of the skin can act as antenna receiver for 5G sub-THz band wavelengths. The presence of sweat glands in skin significantly increase the specific absorption rate (SAR), or heat absorption, for millimeter radio frequency radiation. This varies depending on factors such as perspiration and stress levels. Le Quement (2012) looked at non-thermal skin genome effects of 60.4 GHz exposure for 1, 6 or 24 hours and found at 6 hours there was differential expression of 5 transcripts. He states , “this is the first large-scale study reporting on potential gene expression modification associated with MMW radiation used in wireless communication applications.”
Adverse effects have also been found in bacteria and insects (Trchounian 2016). The cellular and organism effects are nonlinear and depend on a variety of individual factors as well as specific wavelengths, phasing and modulation of the wavelength signals. With widespread exposure even small physiologic alterations would be magnified in a population and contribute to a negative public health outcome.
A review of the literature reveals that there is inadequate research into 5G health and environmental effects. There is science which shows both harmful and beneficial effects but no independent long term studies have been performed on 5G or any research on the mix of frequencies we would be exposed to. Critical long term health studies are lacking for 3G and 4G wireless technologies as well as 5G. Current FCC standards are based only on heat effects for all telecommunications radiofrequencies and not biological effects seen with low level exposures that do not heat or burn tissues.
IEEE: Heat is Still the Only Standard of Harm Considered in 5G Applications, not Biological Effects.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is an industry association primarily composed of engineers, computer scientists, software developers, information technology professionals, physicists, scientists, and allied professionals. It is the world’s largest technical professional association. Their input has been pivotal in setting standards for radiofrequency exposures. The IEEE performs its own research and is involved in computer and wireless technology product development. Some of their research is included in this section. Even in their 2015 report on 5G “Safe for Generations to Come” the authors state, “At this time, more reports of beneficial effects than detrimental effects from low-level exposure to mmWave radiation appear to exist in the literature, but this area needs to be better understood, and the specific effects need to be demonstrated reproducibly by independent investigators before any potential non-thermal effects are to be considered in determining the regulatory limits on this regime of nonionizing radiation.” So far science is not sufficient to support the safety of this technology.
New Evidence of Significant Heat Tissue Damage with 5G: FCC Standards for 5G Gigahertz Wavelengths Urgently Need Reevaluation.
The short millimeter waves for 5G technology bring along new challenges for public safety. To improve the performance of 5G and IOT devices, pulsed phased antenna arrays will be used in cell towers and wireless devices- See A Beam-Steering Antenna for 5G Mobile Phones . This beamforming technology uses a cluster of pulsed microwave antenna beams whose shape and direction can be controlled to have an individual beam pointed at a device to improve signal, similar to missile control. 5G technology will have dozens of smaller antennas packed in a single cell antenna array. The heat generated by these antenna is a huge concern (Nasim and Kim 2017) . New research on heat effects of 5G, by (Neufeld and Kuster 2018), demonstrates that permanent tissue damage from heating may occur even after short exposures to 5G millimeter wave pulse trains, where repetitive pulses can cause rapid, localized heating. The scientists highlight an urgent need for new thermal safety exposure standards to update current guidelines which do not adequately prevent excessive heating from pulsed millimeter wave exposure.
If 5G millimeter wave transmissions associated with these new technologies fail to meet current public safety standards, as the authors predict, then the rollout of IOT becomes questionable on significant thermal health effects, which are regulated and felt to be the only significant health effect. Current FCC policy does not consider non-thermal biological and physiological radiofrequency effects on living organisms, despite abundant literature for 2G 3G and 4G system. This research underscores the obvious lack of meaningful public safety standards.
5G Licensed to Kill: The Insect Inspector Discusses the Insect Apocalypse
As scientists are working to explain the insect apocalypse , this video highlights one common environmental toxin that is known to kill insects, that is 5G as well as 3G and 4G radiation. He points out that “the 30-year radiation from millions of cellular phone masts is the single factor present in every region of insect decline.” Science backs this observation up. Wireless radiation may not be the only factor in this “insect Armageddon” but it may be the critical one. Pesticides can be avoided and habitat can be restored, however, once cell phone masts are placed they are rarely removed and the continuous waves of radiation just intensify to cover broader areas of land with more and more towers. The disappearance of birds and bees points to wireless technology as the yet unrecognized factor hastening this decline. 5G will be like 3G and 4G on steroids as these smaller millimeter wavelengths are the size of insects and the resonance effect of these continuous waves will set up additive vibrations that destroy the insect and essentially cook it. Microwave radiation is known to kill insects and is already being used for insect control in stored grains and other foods. Studies in food and agriculture literature confirm this effect. (Yadav 2014) (Das 2013) (Geveke 2009) (Ponomaryova 2009) (Zhejiang 2004) (Geveke 2003) (Mishenko 2000)
Scientists Urge Moratorium on 5G Technology:
It is notable that currently over 207 scientists and physicians who have researched the biological and health effects of radiofrequency radiation have signed the 5G appeal, calling for a moratorium on the use of 5G technologies until more research is conducted and proves the safety of this technology. See also Scientists call for 5G Moratorium-SaferEMR
Newest Articles 5G
- 5G: Great risk for EU, U.S. and International Health! Compelling Evidence for Eight Distinct Types of Great Harm Caused by Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Exposures and the Mechanism that Causes Them. Martin Pall PhD. 2018. Book published online with scientific references. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29655646
- LiFi is a paradigm-shifting 5G technology. (2018) Haas H. Reviews in Physics. Vol 3. November 2018. Pg 26-31. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2405428317300151
- Systematic Derivation of Safety Limits for Time-Varying 5G Radiofrequency Exposure Based on Analytical Models and Thermal Dose. (2018) Neufeld E and Kuster N. Health Phys. 2018 Sep 21. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=SYSTEMATIC+DERIVATION+OF+SAFETY+LIMITS+FOR+TIME-VARYING+5G+RADIOFREQUENCY+EXPOSURE+BASED+ON+ANALYTICAL+MODELS+AND+THERMAL+DOSE
- Towards 5G communication systems: Are there health implications? (2018) Di Ciaula A. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2018 Apr;221(3):367-375. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29402696
- Wi-Fi is an important threat to human health. (2018). Martin L Pall. Environmental Research. Volume 164. July 2018. Pages 405-416. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935118300355
- 5G wireless telecommunications expansion: Public health and environmental implications. (2018) Russell CL. Environ Res. 2018 Apr 11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29655646
- The human skin as a sub-THz receiver – Does 5G pose a danger to it or not?(2018) Betzalel N et al. Environ Res. 2018 May;163:208-216. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29459303
Published Literature 5G High Frequency, Gigahertz RF
- The distinguishing effects of low intensity electromagnetic radiation of different extremely high frequencies on Enterococcus hirae: growth rate inhibition and scanning electron microscopy analysis. (2017) Hovnanyan K et al. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2017. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28609553
- Effect of acute millimeter wave exposure on dopamine metabolism of NGF-treated PC12 cells. (2017) Haas AJ et al. J Radiat Res. 2017 Feb 24:1-7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28339776
- Rural Macrocell Path Loss Models for Millimeter Wave Wireless Communications. (2017) MacCartney GR et al. IEEE Journal . Volume: 35, Issue: 7, July 2017. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/7914696?reload=true
- Human Exposure to RF Fields in 5G Downlink. (2017) Nasim I and Kim S. Department of Electrical Engineering. Georgia Southern University. https://arxiv.org/pdf/1711.03683.pdf
- Effects of 60-GHz millimeter waves on neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells using high-content screening. (2016) Haas AJ et al. Neurosci Lett. 2016 Apr 8;618:58-65. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26921450
- Millimeter waves or extremely high frequency electromagnetic fields in the environment: what are their effects on bacteria? (2016) Soghomonyan D, Trchounian K, Trchounian A Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 100(11):4761-71. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27087527?dopt=Abstract
- 5G: The Convergence of Wireless Communications. (2015) Chávez-Santiago et al. Wirel Pers Commun. 83: 1617–1642. doi: 10.1007/s11277-015-2467-2 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4821549/
- Will Millimeter Waves Maximize 5G Wireless? (2015) Larry Greenemeier. Scientific America. Jun 23, 2015 https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/will-millimeter-waves-maximize-5g-wireless/
- Safe for Generations to Come. (2015) Wu T et al. (2015) IEEE Microw Mag. 16(2): 65–84. doi: 10.1109/MMM.2014.2377587 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4629874/
- “The Human Body and Millimeter-Wave Wireless Communication Systems: Interactions and Implications,” (2015). Accepted in 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), NYU WIRELESS. (Wu et al., 2015A) Wu T, Rappaport TS, Collins CM, 2015 https://arxiv.org/pdf/1503.05944.pdf
- Millimeter wave promotes the synthesis of extracellular matrix and the proliferation of chondrocyte by regulating the voltage-gated K+ channel. (2014) Li X et al. J Bone Miner Metab. 2014 Jul;32(4):367-77. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24202060
- Effects of millimeter wave irradiation and equivalent thermal heating on the activity of individual neurons in the leech ganglion. (2014) Romanenko S et al. J Neurophysiol. 112(10): 2423–2431. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4233276/
- Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Contribution of Thermal and the Specific Effects in Cellular Response to Millimeter Wave Exposure. (2014) Habauzit et al., PlosOne.Habauzit, D. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0109435
- State of knowledge on biological effects at 40–60 GHz. (2013) Dréan et al., Comptes Rendus Physique, 14(5): 402-411 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631070513000480
- Bactericidal effects of low-intensity extremely high frequency electromagnetic field: an overview with phenomenon, mechanisms, targets and consequences. (2013) Torgomyan and Trchounian. Crit Rev Microbiol. 39(1):102-11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22667685
- Millimeter waves: acoustic and electromagnetic. (2013) Ziskin MC. Bioelectromagnetics. 2013 Jan;34(1):3-14. . https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22926874
- Whole-genome expression analysis in primary human keratinocyte cell cultures exposed to 60 GHz radiation.(2012) Le Quément C et al. Bioelectromagnetics. 2012 Feb;33(2):147-58. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21812010
- Antenna Concepts for Millimeter-Wave Automotive Radar Sensors. (2012) Menzel W, and Moebius A, 2012. Proceedings of the IEEE. 100(7). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6165323/
- Millimeter-Wave Cellular Wireless Networks: Potentials and Challenges. (2012) Sundeep et al. Proceedings of the IEEE. 102(3). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6732923/
- Complex permittivity of representative biological solutions in the 2-67 GHz range. (2012) Zhadobov M et al. Bioelectromagnetics. 2012 May;33(4):346-55. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22012893
- Modeling of reflectometric and ellipsometric spectra from the skin in the terahertz and submillimeter waves region. (2011) Ney and Abdulhalim. Biomed Opt. 16(6):067006. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21721827
- Effects of millimeter waves radiation on cell membrane – A brief review. (2010) Ramundo-Orlando A. Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves. 2010; 31(12):1400–1411. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10762-010-9731-z
- Protein changes in macrophages induced by plasma from rats exposed to 35 GHz millimeter waves. (2010) Sypniewska RK et al. Bioelectromagnetics. 2010 Dec;31(8):656-63. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20683908
- The Active Denial System: A Revolutionary, Non-lethal Weapon for Today’s Battlefield. (2009). Levine S. Center for Technology and National Security Policy National Defense University. National Defense University Press. http://ndupress.ndu.edu/Media/News/Article/1229000/dtp-065-the-active-denial-system-a-revolutionary-non-lethal-weapon-for-todays-b/
- The response of giant phospholipid vesicles to millimeter waves radiation. (2009) Ramundo-Orlando et al. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Biomembranes. 1788(7):1497–1507. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0005273609001175
- [Effects of millimeter wave on gene expression in human keratinocytes]. (2008) Chen et al. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 37(1):23-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18275115
- Human skin as arrays of helical antennas in the millimeter and submillimeter wave range. (2008) Feldman et al. Phys Rev Lett. 100(12):128102 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18517913
- Gene expression changes in the skin of rats induced by prolonged 35 GHz millimeter-wave exposure. (2008) Millenbaugh NJ et al. Radiat Res. 2008 Mar;169(3):288-300. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18302488
- [Thermoelastic excitation of acoustic waves in biological models under the effect of the high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency]. (2007) Gapeev AB et al. Biofizika. 2007 Nov-Dec;52(6):1087-92. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18225661
- Comparison of blood pressure and thermal responses in rats exposed to millimeter wave energy or environmental heat. (2006) Millenbaugh et al., Shock. 25(6):625-32. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16721271
- Low-Intensity Electromagnetic Millimeter Waves for Pain Therapy.(2006) Taras et al. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 3(2): 201–207. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1475937/
- [The study of the mechanisms of formation of reactive oxygen species in aqueous solutions on exposure to high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequencies]. (2005) Gugkova OIu. Biofizika. 2005 Sep-Oct;50(5):773-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16248149
- [Indirect and repeated electromagnetic irradiation of extremely high freguency of bacteria Escherichia coli]. (2005) Isakhanian and Trchunian Biofizika. 50(4):689-92. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16212062
- Effect of millimeter waves on natural killer cell activation. (2005) Makar et al., Bioelectromagnetics. 26(1):10-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15605409 DOI: 10.1002/bem.20046
- Effects of low-intensity ultrahigh frequency electromagnetic radiation on inflammatory processes. (2004) Lushnikov et al., Bull Exp Biol Med. 137(4):364-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15452603
- [A comparison of the effects of millimeter and centimeter waves on tumor necrosis factor production in mouse cells]. (2004) Sinotova OA et al. Biofizika. 2004 May-Jun;49(3):545-50. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15327216
- [Effects of low-intensity extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation on chromatin structure of lymphoid cells in vivo and in vitro]. (2003) Gapeev et al. Radiats Biol Radioecol. (1):87-92. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12677665
- [Decrease in the intensity of the cellular immune response and nonspecific inflammation upon exposure to extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation]. (2003) Lushnikov et al. Biofizika. 48(5):918-25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14582420
- [Effects of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on the immune system and systemic regulation of homeostasis]. (2002) Lushnikov Radiats Biol Radioecol. 42(5):533-45. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12449822
- [Effect of millimeter waves on the immune system in mice with experimental tumors]. (2002) Novoselova EG et al. Biofizika. 2002 Sep-Oct;47(5):933-42. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12397969
- Reactions of keratinocytes to in vitro millimeter wave exposure. (2001) Szabo et al. Bioelectromagnetics. 22(5):358-64. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11424160
- Nonthermal effects of extremely high-frequency microwaves on chromatin conformation in cells in vitro—Dependence on physical, physiological, and genetic factors. (2000) Belyaev IY et al. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques. 2000; 48(11):2172-2179. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/884211/
- Effects of Microwave and Millimeter Wave Radiation on the Eye. (2000) In: Klauenberg B.J., Miklavčič D. (eds) Radio Frequency Radiation Dosimetry and Its Relationship to the Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields. D’Andrea and Chalfin. NATO Science Series (Series 3: High Technology), vol 82. Springer, Dordrecht. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-011-4191-8_43
- Skin heating effects of millimeter- wave irradiation-Thermal modeling results. (2000) Nelson et al. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 48:2111-2120.. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/884202/
- Heating and pain sensation produced in human skin by millimeter waves: comparison to a simple thermal model. (2000) Walters et al., Health Physics 78:259- 267. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10688448
- Radio frequency radiation of millimeter wave length: potential occupational safety issues relating to surface heating. (2000) Ryan KL et al. Health Phys. 2000 Feb;78(2):170-81. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10647983
- Cardiovascular and thermal responses in rats during 94 GHz irradiation. (1999) Jauchem JR et al. Bioelectromagnetics. 1999;20(4):264-7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10230940
- Current State and Implications of Research on Biological Effects of Millimeter Waves: A Review of the Literature. (1998) Andrei G. Pakhomov. Bioelectromagnetics 19:393–413 http://www.rife.org/otherresearch/millimeterwaves.html
- Effect of millimeter-band radiation of nonthermal intensity on the sensitivity of staphylococcus to various antibiotics.(1996) Bulgakova et al., Biofizika 41:1289-1293 (in Russian). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9044624
- Permittivities of fresh fruits and vegetables at 0.2 to 20 GHz.(1994) Nelson S et al. J Microw Power Electromagn Energy. 1994;29(2):81-93. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8083786
- Experimental studies on the influence of millimeter radiation on light transmission through the lens. (1994) Prost, M et al. Klin Oczna. 1994 Aug-Sep;96(8- 9):257-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7897988
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- Effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter range on the cardio-vascular system of the white rat. (1992) Potekhina, et al. Fiziol Zh SSSR Im I M Sechenova. 1992 Jan;78(1):35-41 (in Russian). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1330714
- Absorption of millimeter waves by human beings and its biological implications. (1986) Gandhi and Riazi. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques. MTT-34(2):228-235. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/1133316/
- Biological Effects of Millimeter Wavelengths. (1997) Zalyubovskaya NP. Kiev Vrachebnoye Delo. No.3, 1977.pp116-119. Declassified in 2012. Biological Effects of Millimeter Wavelengths. Zalyubovskaya-Declassif by CIA -1977 – biol eff mm waves